Website credits figures

Credits for the figures 

File 1: website_fig1_layard_monuments_I_1853_71

Source: A. H. Layard, The Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 71.

Description: Phoenician warships and freighters (wall relief, Nineveh, South-West Palace, Throneroom, slab 14, reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 BCE).

File 2: website_fig2_layard_monuments_II_1853_12

Source: A. H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 12.

Description: Round basket-like boat with hide covering (wall relief, Nineveh, South-West Palace, Hall VI, slab 53, reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 BCE).

File 3: website_fig3_layard_monuments_II_1853_13


Source: A. H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 13.

Description: Assyrian raft made of wood and inflated skins (wall relief, Nineveh, South-West Palace, Hall VI, slab 54, reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 BCE).

File 4: website_fig4_ward_seal_cylinders_1910_40_102


Source: W. H. Ward, The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, Washington, 1910, 40, fig. 102.

Description: The boat journey of the god Ea (cylinder seal impression, ca. 2300–2150 BCE)

File 5: website_fig5_legrain_archaic_seal_impressions_1936_pl_16_300


Source: L. Legrain, Archaic Seal-Impressions, New York, 1936 (Ur Excavations III), plate 16, 300.

Description: Boat with high horn-like stern and prow decorated with leaf ornaments. The boatman is armed with a long pole. (seal impression, Early Dynastic, from Ur).

File 6: website_fig6_legrain_archaic_seal_impressions_1936_pl_28_492


Source: L. Legrain, Archaic Seal-Impressions, New York, 1936 (Ur Excavations III), plate 28, 492.

Description: Crescent-shaped boat with two boatmen equipped with round paddles (seal impression, Early Dynastic, from Ur).

Elements of bibliography by authors (alphabetically arranged)

                                               ABOUT THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY
The present bibliography aims to collect the literature concerning the different aspects of ships and shipbuilding in the Ancient Near East. Its geographical frame covers the Middle East including Mesopotamia, the Levant and Anatolia, and the Arabian Gulf region. Its chronological scope extends from the earliest attestations in the sixth millennium up to the end of the Persian empire in the late fourth century BCE. The bibliography comprises principally secondary literature related to the written, archaeological and iconographical sources. Editions of sources are only included when the publication specifically concerns the subject under consideration. It is not the aim of this bibliography to present all the available primary sources related to ships in the Ancient Near East. The Bibliography is presented here in three ways: alphabetically by authors, by regions, and by periods. All the three formats are downloadable as pdf-files and will be updated regularly. At the present stage of the project the research – and consequently this bibliography – focuses specially on Mesopotamia. Therefore we will be very grateful for any information concerning not yet included references related to the others regions. Comments can be sent to the e-mail addresses of the project’s directors. A list of the used bibliographical abbreviations can be found at the end of the bibliography by authors and also as pdf-file. Click here bibliography eleppu alphabetic

 By authors (alphabetically arranged)  
Albenda, P. A Mediterranean seascape from Khorsabad, Assur 3/3, 1983.
Arnaud, D. Les ports de la «Phénicie» à la fin de l’âge du Bronze récent (XIV–XIII siècles) d’après les textes cunéiformes de Syrie, SMEA 30, 1992, 179–194.
Artzy, M. Mariners and their boats at the end of the Late Bronze and the beginning of the iron age in the eastern Mediterranean, Tel Aviv 30, 2003, 232–246.
Alivernini, S. Two additions to the corpus of inspection texts of shipyard (kurum7  ak mar-sa), NABU 2011/52, 55–56.
Alivernini, S. La struttura amministrativa del mar-sa nella documentazione della III dinastia di Ur, Pisa-Rome, 2013.
Alivernini, S. Some considerations on the management of an administrative structure in Ur III Mesopotamia: the case of mar-sa, in: S. Garfinkle / M. Molina (eds.), From the 21st Century B.C. to the 21st Century A.D.: Proceedings of the International Conference on Neo-Sumerian Studies Held in Madrid, 22–24 July 2010, Winona lake, 2013, 105–113.
Askenazi, T. Native river boats in Iraq, Ethnos 22, 1–2, 1957, 50–56.
Balke, Th. E. Eine neusumerische Urkunde über Materialien für den Schiffbau, UF 25, 1993, 1–8.
Ballard, R. D./ Iron Age ship wrecks in deep water of Ashkelon, AJA 2002,   Stager, L. E. et al. 151–168.
Barnett, R. D. Early shipping in the Near East, Antiquity 32, 1958, 220–230.
Bartoloni, P. Navires et navigation, in: V. Krings (ed.), La civilisation phénicienne et punique, Leiden, 1995, 282–289.
Bass, G. F. Cape Gelidonya, A Bronze Age Shipwreck, Philadelphia, 1967 (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57, part 8).
Bass, G. F. A Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun (Kas): 1984 Campaign, AJA 90, 1986, 269–296.
Bass, G. F. Sea and River Craft in the Ancient Near East, in: J. M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Vol III, New York, 1995, 1421–1431.
Beal, R. H. Schiff und Boot. C: Bei den Hethitern, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 171–174.
Bourriau, J. / Oates, J. Spinning or tailing? The boat models from Eridu, Antiquity 71, 1997, 719–721.
Brody, A. J. Further Evidence of the Specialized Religion of Phoenician Seafarers, in: J. Pollini (ed.), Terra Marique: Studies in Honour of Anna Marguerite McCann on the Receipt of the Gold Medal of the Archaeological Institute of America, Oxford, 2005, 177– 182.
Carayon, N.,  Les ports phéniciens du Liban, milieux naturels, organisation spatiale et infrastructures, Archaeology and History in the Lebanon 36–37, 2012–2013, 1–137.
Carayon, N. / Marriner, N. / Geoarchaeology of Byblos, Tyre, Sidon and Beirut, Rivista di  Morhange, C. Studi Fenici 39/1, 2011, 45–56.
Carter, R. A. Boat remains and maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the sixth and fifth millennia BCE, Antiquity 80, 2006, 52–63.
Carter, R. A. Excavations and Ubaid-period boat remains at H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), in: E. Olijdam / R. H. Spoor (eds.), Intercultural Relations Between South and Southwest Asia, Studies in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxfordshire, 2008, 92–102 (BAR International Series 1826).
Carter, R. A. Watercraft, in: D. T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Malden-Oxford, 2012, 347–372.
Casson, L. The river boats of Mesopotamia, The Mariner’s Mirror 53/3, 1967, 286–288.
Charpin, D. La politique hydraulique des rois paléo-babyloniens, Annales 57, 2002, 545–559 [Irrigation ou transport par bateaux: un dilemme?, 553–555]
Christian, M. Phoenician maritime religion: Sailors, goddess worship, and the Grotta Regina, WO 43, 2013, 179–205.
Civil, M. Note lexikographique sur SUḪUR/KA, RA 61, 1967, 63–68. [reed mats for ships].
Cleuziou, S. Early Bronze Age trade in the Gulf and the Arabian Sea: The society behind the boats, in: D. Potts et al. (ed.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates, London, 2003, 133–150.
Cleuziou, S. / Tosi, M. Black boats of Magan. Some thoughts on Bronze-Age water transport in Oman and beyond from impressed bitumen slabs of Ra’s al-Junays, in: A. Parpola / P. Koskikallio (eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1993, Volume II, Helsinki, 1994, 745–761.
Cleuziou, S. / Tosi, M. Ra’s al-Junays and the prehistoric coastal cultures of the Ja’alan, Journal of Oman Studies 11, 2000, 19–74.
Connan, J. et al. A comparative geochemical study of bituminous boat remains from H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), and Ra’s al-Jinz (Oman), Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 15, 2005, 1–46.
D’agostino, F. / Santagati, E. BM 106145: un nuovo testo da Umma che menziona personale del cantiere navale (mar-sa), in: P. Michalowski (ed.), On the Third Dynasty of Ur. Studies in Honor of Marcel Sigrist, Boston, 2008, 1–9.
Dietrich, M. / Loretz, O. Schiffshandel und Schiffsmiete zwischen Byblos und Ugarit: UF 22, 1990 (published 1991), 89–96.
Fales, F. M Il taglio e il transporto di legname nelle lettere a Sargon II, in: O. Carruba / M. Liverani / C. Zaccagnini (eds.), Studi orientalistici in ricordo di Franco Pintore, Pavia, 1983, 49–92.
Fales, F. M. River transport in Neo-Assyrian Letters, Šulmu IV, 1993, 79– 92.
Finet, A. L’Euphrate, une route commerciale de la Mésopotamie, AAAS 19, 1969, 37–48.
Finkel, I. L. The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood, London, 2014.
Frost, H. The stone-anchors of Byblos, Beirut, 1969 (Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph 45/26).
Gawlikowski, M. Thapsacus and Zeugma. The crossing of the Euphrates in antiquity, Iraq 58, 1996, 123–133,
Gestoso, G. Forms of payment in the Amarna Age and in the Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya shipwrecks, UF 42, 2010 [published 2011], 261–278.
Graeve, Ch. de The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c. 2000–500 BC), Leuven, 1981 (OLA 7).
Gomi, T. A note on gur, capacity unit of the Ur III period, ZA 83, 1993, 31–41.
Göttlicher, A. Schiffbau im Zweistromland, Das Logbuch 1–3, 1969–1970.
Göttlicher, A. Un document pour l’étude des techniques nautiques babyloniennes – deux terre cuites conservés au Musée de Rouen, Le petit perroquet 12 (Grenoble), 1973/1974, 60–63.
Göttlicher, A. Das sumerische Bootsmodell Sydney 40, AW 5, 1974, 43–44.
Göttlicher, A. Materialien für ein Corpus der Schiffmodelle im Altertum, Wiesbaden, 1978.
Guichard, M. Flote crétoise sur l’Euphrate?, NABU 7, 1993/53, 29–31.
Haggi, A. / Artzy, M. The Harbor of Atlit in Northern Canaanite/Phoenician Context, Near Eastern Archaeology 70/2, 2007, 75–84.
Heimpel, W. Das Untere Meer, ZA 77, 1987, 22–91.
Heimpel, W. The location of Madga, JCS 61, 2009, 25–61.
Heimpel, W. Twenty-eight trees growing in Sumer, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 75–152 (CUSAS 6).
Heimpel, W. On the location of the forests of Garšana, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 153–159 (CUSAS 6).
Heimpel, W. Two unrecognized terms in Ur III accounts of boat transport, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 161–175 (CUSAS 6).
Hempelmann, R.  „Gottschiff“ und „Zikkurratbau“ auf vorderasiatischen Rollsiegeln des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr., Münster 2004 (AOAT 312).
Joannès, F. Les droits sur l’eau en Babylonie récente, Annales 57, 2002, 577–609 [La navigation, 597–608].
Kingsley, S. A. / Raveh, K The Ancient Harbour and Anchorage at Dor, Israel, Oxford (BAR International Series 626), 1996.
Kingsley, S. A. Shipwreck Archaeology of the Holy Land, London, 2004.
Kupper, J.-R. Les prix à Mari, OLA 13, 1982, 115–121 [specially 173–185].
Kupper, J.-R. Le commerce à Mari, Bulletin de la Classe de Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Politiques 1–2, 1991, 41–47.
Legrain, L. The golden boats of Marduk and Nabu in Babylon, The Museum Journal 14, 1923, 267–281.
Linder, E. A Canaanite thalassocracy, in: G. D. Young (ed.), Ugarit in retrospect. 50 Years of Ugarit and Ugaritic, Winona Lake, 1981, 31–42.
Linder, E. The Khorsabad wall relief: A mediterranean seascape or river transport of timbers?, JAOS 106, 1986, 273–281.
Linder, E. Ma‘agan Micha’el (The Shipwreck), in: NEAEHL 3, 918–919.
Liphschitz, N. Cedars of Lebanon: Exploring the roots, BAR 39/3, 2013, 49–56 and 71.
Liphschitz, N. / Pulak, C. Wood species used in ancient shipbuilding in Turkey, Skyllis 8, 2007–2008, 73–82.
Liverani, M. The trade network of Tyre according to Ezek. 27, in: M. Cogan / I. Eph’al (eds.), Ah Assyria … Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor, Jerusalem, 1991, 65–79.
Mäkelä, T. T. Ships and Shipbuilding in Mesopotamia, unpubl. MA Thesis, Texas, 2002.
Marriner, N. Geoarchaeology of Lebanon’s Ancient Harbours, 2009 (BAR International Series 1953).
Marriner, N. / Ancient harbour infrastructure in the Levant: tracking the birth  Morhange, C. / and rise of new forms of anthropogenic pressure. Scientific Re- Kaniewski, D. / Carayon, N. ports 4, 5554, 2014 (DOI:10.1038/srep05554).
Master, D. M. The Seaport of Ashqelon in the Seventh Century BCE: A Petrographic Study, PhD. Diss. University of Harvard, 2001.
Mayer-Opificius, R. Götterprozessionen, in: J.-W. Meyer / M. Novák / A. Pruß. (eds.), Beiträge zur Vorderasiatischen Archäologie, Winfried Orthmann gewidmet, Frankfurt, 2001, 282–291.
Mayer-Opificius, R. Götterreisen im Alten Orient, in: O. Loretz / K. A. Metzler / H. Schaudig (eds.), Ex Mesopotamia et Syria Lux. Festschrift für Manfried Dietrich zu seinem 65. Geburtstag, Münster, 2002 (AOAT 281), 369–387.
Meyer, J.-W. J.-W. Meyer, Die Bedeutung der Bootsmodelle aus dem Alten Orient, in: Th. Richter / D. Prechel / J. Klinger (eds.), Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalischen Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag, Saarbrücken, 2002, 267–283.
Morhange C. / La mobilité des paysages portuaires antiques du Liban, Beirut,  Saghieh-Beydoun M. (eds.) 2005 (BAAL hors-série 2).
Nützel, W. Lag Ur einst am Meer?, MDOG 112, 1980, 95–102.
Nützel, W. Die ökologischen Vorzüge küstennaher Besiedlungsstätten Mesopotamiens, MDOG 112, 1980, 103–114.
Oates, J. / Davidson, T. E. / Seafaring Merchants of Ur?, Antiquity 51, 1977, 221–234.  Kamill, D. / McKerel, H.
Ochsenschlager, E. Ethnographic evidence for wood, boats, bitumen and reeds in southern Iraq, BSA 6, 1992, 42–78.
Ochsenschlager, E. Iraq’s Marsh Arabs in the Garden of Eden, Pennsylvania, 2004.
Oppenheim, A. L. The seafaring merchants of Ur, JAOS 74, 1954, 6–17.
Patai, R. The Children of Noah. Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times, Princeton, 1998.
Pedersen, R. K. The Boatbuilding Sequence in the Gilgamesh Epic and the Sewn Boat Relation, Diss. Texas, 2003.
Pedersen, R. K. Traditional Arabian watercraft and the ark of the Gilgamesh epic: interpretations and realizations, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 34, 2004, 231–238.
Pedersen, R. K. Was Noah’s ark a sewn boat?, BAR 31/3, 2005, 18–23 and 55– 56.
Potts, D. T. Waterkraft of the Lower Sea, in: U. Finkbeiner / R. Dittmann / H. Hauptmann (eds.), Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte
Vorderasiens. Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer, Mainz, 1995, 559–571.
Potts, D. T. Watercraft, in: D. T. Potts, Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations, London, 1997, 122–137.
Price, I. M. Transportation by water in early Babylonia, AJSL 40, 19231924, 111–116.
Pulak, C.  Ulu Burun: 1989 excavation campaign, INA Newsletter 16.4, 1989, 4–11.
Pulak, C.  Ulu Burun: 1990 excavation campaign, INA Newsletter 17.4, 1990, 8–13.
Pulak, C.  The Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun, 1991 field season: “Ingot summer”, INA Newsletter 18.4, 1991, 4–10.
Pulak, C.  The Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun, Turkey: 1992 field season, INA Quarterly 19.4, 1992, 4–11, 21.
Pulak, C.  The shipwreck at Uluburun: 1993 excavation campaign, The INA Quarterly 20.4, 1993, 4–12.
Pulak, C.  1994 excavation at Uluburun: The final campaign, The INA Quarterly 21.4, 1994, 8–16.
Pulak, C.  The Uluburun shipwreck, in: S. Swiny / R. L. Hohlfelder / H. W. Swiny (eds.), Res Maritimae: Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, Nicosia, Cyprus 18-21 October 1994, Atlanta, 1997 (ASOR Archaeological Reports 4), 233–262.
Pulak, C.  The Uluburun shipwreck: An overview, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 27, 1998, 188–224.
Pulak, C. The late bronze age shipwreck at Uluburun; Aspects of hull construction, in: W. Phelps / Y. Lolos / Y. Vichos (eds.), proceedings of the International Conference, Island of Spetses, 19 September 1998, Athens, 1999, 209–238, Athen, 1999, 209– 238.
Pulak, C. Hull construction of the late bronze age shipwreck at Uluburun, INA Quarterly 26/1, 1999, 16–21.
Pulak, C.  The Uluburun Hull Remains, in: H. E. Tzalas (ed.), Tropis VII. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity (27 August – 31 August, 2000, Pylos), Athens, 2003, 615–636.
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Abbreviations  PDF here >  bibliography eleppu abbreviations
AW Antike Welt (Wiesbaden/Darmstadt)

AAAS Annales Archéologiques Arabes Syriennes (Damascus)

AJA American Journal of Archaeology (Princeton/Boston)

AJSL American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (Chicago)

AoF Altorientalische Forschungen (Berlin)

AOS American Oriental Studies (New Haven)

ArOr Archív Orientální (Prag)

BA Biblical Archaeologist (Boston; renamed Near Eastern Archaeology after issue 60/4, 1997)

BAAL Bulletin d’Archéologie et d’Architecture Libanaises (Beirut)

BAR 1. Biblical Archaeology Review (Washington)  2. Britisch Archaeological Reports (Oxford)

BSA Bulletin of Sumerian Agriculture (Cambridge)

CUSAS Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology (Cornell(

INA Institute of Nautical Archaeology (Texas)

JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society (New Haven)

JCS Journal of Cuneiform Studies (New Haven/Boston)

JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies (Chicago)

MDOG Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (Berlin)

NABU Nouvelles assyriologiques brèves et utilitaires (Paris/Rouen)

NEAEHL E. Stern (ed.), The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, New York-Jerusalem, 1993 (vols. 1–4) and 2008 (vol. 5).

OLA Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta (Leuwen)

Or NS Orientalia Nova Series (Rome)

RA Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archéologie Orientale (Paris)

RlA Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie (Berlin/Leipzig)

SMEA Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici (Rome)

UF Ugarit Forschungen (Neukirchen-Vluyn/Münster)

WO Die Welt des Orients (Wuppertal/Göttingen)

ZA Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie (Berlin)