Rencontres internationales Instrumentum 14-16 juin 2017 – Musée départemental de l’Arles antique – Arles (France)

Les 14, 15 et 16 juin 2017 ont eu lieu à Arles (Musée départemental de l’Arles antique) les Rencontres Internationales Instrumentum. Ce colloque annuel a été l’occasion pour les intervenants de proposer diverses communications dédiées aux mobiliers en lien avec la construction, l’équipement, l’entretien et l’usage des véhicules dans l’Antiquité et au Moyen-Âge. Quatre sessions étaient proposées:

-les véhicules roulants à traction animale

-les montures

-les bateaux de navigation intérieure

-les navires du milieu maritime

C’est à cette occasion, lors de la troisième session, qu’une communication intitulée « Construction et structures des embarcations mésopotamiennes aux IIIème et IIème millénaires avant J.-C. » a été présentée par Maëva Bou Djemma (Doctorante au Centre François Viète, Brest). Cette communication s’insère dans les travaux de recherches menés par l’équipe du projet Eleppu, qui proposent en effet de mener à bien une compréhension des divers aspects de la navigation en Mésopotamie ancienne.

Cette communication a fait l’objet d’un intérêt manifeste, et a notamment été marquée par des échanges très positifs ainsi que de multiples recommandations de nombreux spécialistes de la navigation et des reconstructions d’épaves en Méditerranée.

Lien du site INSTRUMENTUM > http://instrumentum-europe.org/

Programme des rencontres à télécharger (PDF) > Programme Rencontres Instrumentum

Présentation Communication Maëva BOU DJEMAA (PDF) >Présentation Communication Arles Maëva BOUDJEMAA 16 juin 2017

Website credits figures

Credits for the figures 

File 1: website_fig1_layard_monuments_I_1853_71

Source: A. H. Layard, The Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 71.

Description: Phoenician warships and freighters (wall relief, Nineveh, South-West Palace, Throneroom, slab 14, reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 BCE).

File 2: website_fig2_layard_monuments_II_1853_12

Source: A. H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 12.

Description: Round basket-like boat with hide covering (wall relief, Nineveh, South-West Palace, Hall VI, slab 53, reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 BCE).

File 3: website_fig3_layard_monuments_II_1853_13

website_fig3_layard_monuments_II_1853_pl_13

Source: A. H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 13.

Description: Assyrian raft made of wood and inflated skins (wall relief, Nineveh, South-West Palace, Hall VI, slab 54, reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 BCE).

File 4: website_fig4_ward_seal_cylinders_1910_40_102

website_fig4_ward_1910_40_102

Source: W. H. Ward, The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, Washington, 1910, 40, fig. 102.

Description: The boat journey of the god Ea (cylinder seal impression, ca. 2300–2150 BCE)

File 5: website_fig5_legrain_archaic_seal_impressions_1936_pl_16_300

website_fig5_legrain_archaic_seal_impressions_1936_pl_16_300

Source: L. Legrain, Archaic Seal-Impressions, New York, 1936 (Ur Excavations III), plate 16, 300.

Description: Boat with high horn-like stern and prow decorated with leaf ornaments. The boatman is armed with a long pole. (seal impression, Early Dynastic, from Ur).

File 6: website_fig6_legrain_archaic_seal_impressions_1936_pl_28_492

website_fig6_legrain_archaic_seal_impressions_1936_pl_28_492

Source: L. Legrain, Archaic Seal-Impressions, New York, 1936 (Ur Excavations III), plate 28, 492.

Description: Crescent-shaped boat with two boatmen equipped with round paddles (seal impression, Early Dynastic, from Ur).

Elements of bibliography by authors (alphabetically arranged)

                                               ABOUT THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY
The present bibliography aims to collect the literature concerning the different aspects of ships and shipbuilding in the Ancient Near East. Its geographical frame covers the Middle East including Mesopotamia, the Levant and Anatolia, and the Arabian Gulf region. Its chronological scope extends from the earliest attestations in the sixth millennium up to the end of the Persian empire in the late fourth century BCE. The bibliography comprises principally secondary literature related to the written, archaeological and iconographical sources. Editions of sources are only included when the publication specifically concerns the subject under consideration. It is not the aim of this bibliography to present all the available primary sources related to ships in the Ancient Near East. The Bibliography is presented here in three ways: alphabetically by authors, by regions, and by periods. All the three formats are downloadable as pdf-files and will be updated regularly. At the present stage of the project the research – and consequently this bibliography – focuses specially on Mesopotamia. Therefore we will be very grateful for any information concerning not yet included references related to the others regions. Comments can be sent to the e-mail addresses of the project’s directors. A list of the used bibliographical abbreviations can be found at the end of the bibliography by authors and also as pdf-file. Click here bibliography eleppu alphabetic

 By authors (alphabetically arranged)  
Albenda, P. A Mediterranean seascape from Khorsabad, Assur 3/3, 1983.
Arnaud, D. Les ports de la «Phénicie» à la fin de l’âge du Bronze récent (XIV–XIII siècles) d’après les textes cunéiformes de Syrie, SMEA 30, 1992, 179–194.
Artzy, M. Mariners and their boats at the end of the Late Bronze and the beginning of the iron age in the eastern Mediterranean, Tel Aviv 30, 2003, 232–246.
Alivernini, S. Two additions to the corpus of inspection texts of shipyard (kurum7  ak mar-sa), NABU 2011/52, 55–56.
Alivernini, S. La struttura amministrativa del mar-sa nella documentazione della III dinastia di Ur, Pisa-Rome, 2013.
Alivernini, S. Some considerations on the management of an administrative structure in Ur III Mesopotamia: the case of mar-sa, in: S. Garfinkle / M. Molina (eds.), From the 21st Century B.C. to the 21st Century A.D.: Proceedings of the International Conference on Neo-Sumerian Studies Held in Madrid, 22–24 July 2010, Winona lake, 2013, 105–113.
Askenazi, T. Native river boats in Iraq, Ethnos 22, 1–2, 1957, 50–56.
Balke, Th. E. Eine neusumerische Urkunde über Materialien für den Schiffbau, UF 25, 1993, 1–8.
Ballard, R. D./ Iron Age ship wrecks in deep water of Ashkelon, AJA 2002,   Stager, L. E. et al. 151–168.
Barnett, R. D. Early shipping in the Near East, Antiquity 32, 1958, 220–230.
Bartoloni, P. Navires et navigation, in: V. Krings (ed.), La civilisation phénicienne et punique, Leiden, 1995, 282–289.
Bass, G. F. Cape Gelidonya, A Bronze Age Shipwreck, Philadelphia, 1967 (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57, part 8).
Bass, G. F. A Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun (Kas): 1984 Campaign, AJA 90, 1986, 269–296.
Bass, G. F. Sea and River Craft in the Ancient Near East, in: J. M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Vol III, New York, 1995, 1421–1431.
Beal, R. H. Schiff und Boot. C: Bei den Hethitern, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 171–174.
Bourriau, J. / Oates, J. Spinning or tailing? The boat models from Eridu, Antiquity 71, 1997, 719–721.
Brody, A. J. Further Evidence of the Specialized Religion of Phoenician Seafarers, in: J. Pollini (ed.), Terra Marique: Studies in Honour of Anna Marguerite McCann on the Receipt of the Gold Medal of the Archaeological Institute of America, Oxford, 2005, 177– 182.
Carayon, N.,  Les ports phéniciens du Liban, milieux naturels, organisation spatiale et infrastructures, Archaeology and History in the Lebanon 36–37, 2012–2013, 1–137.
Carayon, N. / Marriner, N. / Geoarchaeology of Byblos, Tyre, Sidon and Beirut, Rivista di  Morhange, C. Studi Fenici 39/1, 2011, 45–56.
Carter, R. A. Boat remains and maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the sixth and fifth millennia BCE, Antiquity 80, 2006, 52–63.
Carter, R. A. Excavations and Ubaid-period boat remains at H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), in: E. Olijdam / R. H. Spoor (eds.), Intercultural Relations Between South and Southwest Asia, Studies in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxfordshire, 2008, 92–102 (BAR International Series 1826).
Carter, R. A. Watercraft, in: D. T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Malden-Oxford, 2012, 347–372.
Casson, L. The river boats of Mesopotamia, The Mariner’s Mirror 53/3, 1967, 286–288.
Charpin, D. La politique hydraulique des rois paléo-babyloniens, Annales 57, 2002, 545–559 [Irrigation ou transport par bateaux: un dilemme?, 553–555]
Christian, M. Phoenician maritime religion: Sailors, goddess worship, and the Grotta Regina, WO 43, 2013, 179–205.
Civil, M. Note lexikographique sur SUḪUR/KA, RA 61, 1967, 63–68. [reed mats for ships].
Cleuziou, S. Early Bronze Age trade in the Gulf and the Arabian Sea: The society behind the boats, in: D. Potts et al. (ed.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates, London, 2003, 133–150.
Cleuziou, S. / Tosi, M. Black boats of Magan. Some thoughts on Bronze-Age water transport in Oman and beyond from impressed bitumen slabs of Ra’s al-Junays, in: A. Parpola / P. Koskikallio (eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1993, Volume II, Helsinki, 1994, 745–761.
Cleuziou, S. / Tosi, M. Ra’s al-Junays and the prehistoric coastal cultures of the Ja’alan, Journal of Oman Studies 11, 2000, 19–74.
Connan, J. et al. A comparative geochemical study of bituminous boat remains from H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), and Ra’s al-Jinz (Oman), Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 15, 2005, 1–46.
D’agostino, F. / Santagati, E. BM 106145: un nuovo testo da Umma che menziona personale del cantiere navale (mar-sa), in: P. Michalowski (ed.), On the Third Dynasty of Ur. Studies in Honor of Marcel Sigrist, Boston, 2008, 1–9.
Dietrich, M. / Loretz, O. Schiffshandel und Schiffsmiete zwischen Byblos und Ugarit: UF 22, 1990 (published 1991), 89–96.
Fales, F. M Il taglio e il transporto di legname nelle lettere a Sargon II, in: O. Carruba / M. Liverani / C. Zaccagnini (eds.), Studi orientalistici in ricordo di Franco Pintore, Pavia, 1983, 49–92.
Fales, F. M. River transport in Neo-Assyrian Letters, Šulmu IV, 1993, 79– 92.
Finet, A. L’Euphrate, une route commerciale de la Mésopotamie, AAAS 19, 1969, 37–48.
Finkel, I. L. The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood, London, 2014.
Frost, H. The stone-anchors of Byblos, Beirut, 1969 (Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph 45/26).
Gawlikowski, M. Thapsacus and Zeugma. The crossing of the Euphrates in antiquity, Iraq 58, 1996, 123–133,
Gestoso, G. Forms of payment in the Amarna Age and in the Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya shipwrecks, UF 42, 2010 [published 2011], 261–278.
Graeve, Ch. de The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c. 2000–500 BC), Leuven, 1981 (OLA 7).
Gomi, T. A note on gur, capacity unit of the Ur III period, ZA 83, 1993, 31–41.
Göttlicher, A. Schiffbau im Zweistromland, Das Logbuch 1–3, 1969–1970.
Göttlicher, A. Un document pour l’étude des techniques nautiques babyloniennes – deux terre cuites conservés au Musée de Rouen, Le petit perroquet 12 (Grenoble), 1973/1974, 60–63.
Göttlicher, A. Das sumerische Bootsmodell Sydney 40, AW 5, 1974, 43–44.
Göttlicher, A. Materialien für ein Corpus der Schiffmodelle im Altertum, Wiesbaden, 1978.
Guichard, M. Flote crétoise sur l’Euphrate?, NABU 7, 1993/53, 29–31.
Haggi, A. / Artzy, M. The Harbor of Atlit in Northern Canaanite/Phoenician Context, Near Eastern Archaeology 70/2, 2007, 75–84.
Heimpel, W. Das Untere Meer, ZA 77, 1987, 22–91.
Heimpel, W. The location of Madga, JCS 61, 2009, 25–61.
Heimpel, W. Twenty-eight trees growing in Sumer, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 75–152 (CUSAS 6).
Heimpel, W. On the location of the forests of Garšana, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 153–159 (CUSAS 6).
Heimpel, W. Two unrecognized terms in Ur III accounts of boat transport, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 161–175 (CUSAS 6).
Hempelmann, R.  „Gottschiff“ und „Zikkurratbau“ auf vorderasiatischen Rollsiegeln des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr., Münster 2004 (AOAT 312).
Joannès, F. Les droits sur l’eau en Babylonie récente, Annales 57, 2002, 577–609 [La navigation, 597–608].
Kingsley, S. A. / Raveh, K The Ancient Harbour and Anchorage at Dor, Israel, Oxford (BAR International Series 626), 1996.
Kingsley, S. A. Shipwreck Archaeology of the Holy Land, London, 2004.
Kupper, J.-R. Les prix à Mari, OLA 13, 1982, 115–121 [specially 173–185].
Kupper, J.-R. Le commerce à Mari, Bulletin de la Classe de Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Politiques 1–2, 1991, 41–47.
Legrain, L. The golden boats of Marduk and Nabu in Babylon, The Museum Journal 14, 1923, 267–281.
Linder, E. A Canaanite thalassocracy, in: G. D. Young (ed.), Ugarit in retrospect. 50 Years of Ugarit and Ugaritic, Winona Lake, 1981, 31–42.
Linder, E. The Khorsabad wall relief: A mediterranean seascape or river transport of timbers?, JAOS 106, 1986, 273–281.
Linder, E. Ma‘agan Micha’el (The Shipwreck), in: NEAEHL 3, 918–919.
Liphschitz, N. Cedars of Lebanon: Exploring the roots, BAR 39/3, 2013, 49–56 and 71.
Liphschitz, N. / Pulak, C. Wood species used in ancient shipbuilding in Turkey, Skyllis 8, 2007–2008, 73–82.
Liverani, M. The trade network of Tyre according to Ezek. 27, in: M. Cogan / I. Eph’al (eds.), Ah Assyria … Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor, Jerusalem, 1991, 65–79.
Mäkelä, T. T. Ships and Shipbuilding in Mesopotamia, unpubl. MA Thesis, Texas, 2002.
Marriner, N. Geoarchaeology of Lebanon’s Ancient Harbours, 2009 (BAR International Series 1953).
Marriner, N. / Ancient harbour infrastructure in the Levant: tracking the birth  Morhange, C. / and rise of new forms of anthropogenic pressure. Scientific Re- Kaniewski, D. / Carayon, N. ports 4, 5554, 2014 (DOI:10.1038/srep05554).
Master, D. M. The Seaport of Ashqelon in the Seventh Century BCE: A Petrographic Study, PhD. Diss. University of Harvard, 2001.
Mayer-Opificius, R. Götterprozessionen, in: J.-W. Meyer / M. Novák / A. Pruß. (eds.), Beiträge zur Vorderasiatischen Archäologie, Winfried Orthmann gewidmet, Frankfurt, 2001, 282–291.
Mayer-Opificius, R. Götterreisen im Alten Orient, in: O. Loretz / K. A. Metzler / H. Schaudig (eds.), Ex Mesopotamia et Syria Lux. Festschrift für Manfried Dietrich zu seinem 65. Geburtstag, Münster, 2002 (AOAT 281), 369–387.
Meyer, J.-W. J.-W. Meyer, Die Bedeutung der Bootsmodelle aus dem Alten Orient, in: Th. Richter / D. Prechel / J. Klinger (eds.), Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalischen Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag, Saarbrücken, 2002, 267–283.
Morhange C. / La mobilité des paysages portuaires antiques du Liban, Beirut,  Saghieh-Beydoun M. (eds.) 2005 (BAAL hors-série 2).
Nützel, W. Lag Ur einst am Meer?, MDOG 112, 1980, 95–102.
Nützel, W. Die ökologischen Vorzüge küstennaher Besiedlungsstätten Mesopotamiens, MDOG 112, 1980, 103–114.
Oates, J. / Davidson, T. E. / Seafaring Merchants of Ur?, Antiquity 51, 1977, 221–234.  Kamill, D. / McKerel, H.
Ochsenschlager, E. Ethnographic evidence for wood, boats, bitumen and reeds in southern Iraq, BSA 6, 1992, 42–78.
Ochsenschlager, E. Iraq’s Marsh Arabs in the Garden of Eden, Pennsylvania, 2004.
Oppenheim, A. L. The seafaring merchants of Ur, JAOS 74, 1954, 6–17.
Patai, R. The Children of Noah. Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times, Princeton, 1998.
Pedersen, R. K. The Boatbuilding Sequence in the Gilgamesh Epic and the Sewn Boat Relation, Diss. Texas, 2003.
Pedersen, R. K. Traditional Arabian watercraft and the ark of the Gilgamesh epic: interpretations and realizations, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 34, 2004, 231–238.
Pedersen, R. K. Was Noah’s ark a sewn boat?, BAR 31/3, 2005, 18–23 and 55– 56.
Potts, D. T. Waterkraft of the Lower Sea, in: U. Finkbeiner / R. Dittmann / H. Hauptmann (eds.), Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte
Vorderasiens. Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer, Mainz, 1995, 559–571.
Potts, D. T. Watercraft, in: D. T. Potts, Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations, London, 1997, 122–137.
Price, I. M. Transportation by water in early Babylonia, AJSL 40, 19231924, 111–116.
Pulak, C.  Ulu Burun: 1989 excavation campaign, INA Newsletter 16.4, 1989, 4–11.
Pulak, C.  Ulu Burun: 1990 excavation campaign, INA Newsletter 17.4, 1990, 8–13.
Pulak, C.  The Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun, 1991 field season: “Ingot summer”, INA Newsletter 18.4, 1991, 4–10.
Pulak, C.  The Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun, Turkey: 1992 field season, INA Quarterly 19.4, 1992, 4–11, 21.
Pulak, C.  The shipwreck at Uluburun: 1993 excavation campaign, The INA Quarterly 20.4, 1993, 4–12.
Pulak, C.  1994 excavation at Uluburun: The final campaign, The INA Quarterly 21.4, 1994, 8–16.
Pulak, C.  The Uluburun shipwreck, in: S. Swiny / R. L. Hohlfelder / H. W. Swiny (eds.), Res Maritimae: Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, Nicosia, Cyprus 18-21 October 1994, Atlanta, 1997 (ASOR Archaeological Reports 4), 233–262.
Pulak, C.  The Uluburun shipwreck: An overview, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 27, 1998, 188–224.
Pulak, C. The late bronze age shipwreck at Uluburun; Aspects of hull construction, in: W. Phelps / Y. Lolos / Y. Vichos (eds.), proceedings of the International Conference, Island of Spetses, 19 September 1998, Athens, 1999, 209–238, Athen, 1999, 209– 238.
Pulak, C. Hull construction of the late bronze age shipwreck at Uluburun, INA Quarterly 26/1, 1999, 16–21.
Pulak, C.  The Uluburun Hull Remains, in: H. E. Tzalas (ed.), Tropis VII. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity (27 August – 31 August, 2000, Pylos), Athens, 2003, 615–636.
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Vosmer, T. Shipping in the Bronze-Age: how large was a 60-gur ship?, in: E. Olijdam / R. Spoor (eds.), Intercultural Relations Between South and South-West Asia in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxford, 2008, 230–235.
Wachsmann, Sh. The Galilee boat – 2,000-year-old hull recovered intact, BAR 14/5, 1988.
Wachsmann, Sh. Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, 1998. [review: JNES 62, 2003, 30-31 (H. Genz)]
Wachsmann, Sh. The Sea of Galilee Boat, Texas A&M University Press, 2009.
Waetzold, H. The use of wool for the production of strings, ropes, braided mats, and similar fabrics, in: C. Gillis / M.-L. B. Nosch (eds.), Ancient Textiles. Production, Craft and Society, Oxford, 2007, 112–121.
Wagensonner, K. „Wenn Götter reisen …“, Götterreisen, -prozessionen und Besuchfahrten in den sumerischen literarischen Texten, unpubl. Diplomarbeit, Vienna, 2005.
Wagensonner, K. Götterreise oder Herrscherreise oder vielleicht beides? Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 97 (Fs Hunger), 2007, 541-559.
Weszeli, M. Textzeugen zu Schiffen und Schiffern im Zweiten und ersten Jahrtausend v. Chr.: Die Schifffahrt im Süden Mesopotamiens und in Mari, unpubl. Diss., Vienna, 2002.
Weszeli, M. The costs of transporting goods, in: M. Jursa et al., Aspects of the Economic History of Babylonia in the First Millennium B.C. Economic Geography, Economic Mentalities, Agriculture, the Use of Money and the Problem of Economic Growth, Münster 2010 (AOAT 377), 140–152.
Weszeli, M. Schiff und Boot. B: In mesopotamischen Quellen des 2. und 1. Jahrtausends, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 160–171.
Weszeli, M. Schiff und Boot. D: Archäologisch, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 174– 176.
Widell, M. Schiff und Boot. A: In den sumerischen Quellen, RlA 12, 2009– 2011, 158–160.
Wittke, A.-M. Hafenorte und ihre Bedeutung für die « Außenwirkung » des späthethitischen Raumes (ca. 1200-700 v. Chr.), in: M. Novák / F. Prayon / A.-M. Wittke (eds.), Die Außenwirkung des späthethitischen Kulturraumes, Münster, 2004 (AOAT 323).
Xella, P. Die Ausrüstung eines kanaanäischen Schiffes (KTU 4.689): WO 13, 1982 (published 1983) 31–35.
Yalçin, Ü. / Pulak, C. / Das Schiff von Uluburun. Welthandel vor 3000 Jahren. Katalog  Slotta, R. (eds.) der Ausstellung des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum vom 15. Juli 2005 bis 16. Juli 2006, Bochum, 2005.
Zarins, J. Magan shipbuilders at the Ur III Lagash state dockyards (2062– 2025 BC), in: E. Olijdam / R. Spoor (eds.), Intercultural Relations Between South and South-West Asia in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxford, 2008, 209–229.

Abbreviations  PDF here >  bibliography eleppu abbreviations
AW Antike Welt (Wiesbaden/Darmstadt)

AAAS Annales Archéologiques Arabes Syriennes (Damascus)

AJA American Journal of Archaeology (Princeton/Boston)

AJSL American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures (Chicago)

AoF Altorientalische Forschungen (Berlin)

AOS American Oriental Studies (New Haven)

ArOr Archív Orientální (Prag)

BA Biblical Archaeologist (Boston; renamed Near Eastern Archaeology after issue 60/4, 1997)

BAAL Bulletin d’Archéologie et d’Architecture Libanaises (Beirut)

BAR 1. Biblical Archaeology Review (Washington)  2. Britisch Archaeological Reports (Oxford)

BSA Bulletin of Sumerian Agriculture (Cambridge)

CUSAS Cornell University Studies in Assyriology and Sumerology (Cornell(

INA Institute of Nautical Archaeology (Texas)

JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society (New Haven)

JCS Journal of Cuneiform Studies (New Haven/Boston)

JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies (Chicago)

MDOG Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft (Berlin)

NABU Nouvelles assyriologiques brèves et utilitaires (Paris/Rouen)

NEAEHL E. Stern (ed.), The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, New York-Jerusalem, 1993 (vols. 1–4) and 2008 (vol. 5).

OLA Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta (Leuwen)

Or NS Orientalia Nova Series (Rome)

RA Revue d’Assyriologie et d’Archéologie Orientale (Paris)

RlA Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie (Berlin/Leipzig)

SMEA Studi Micenei ed Egeo-Anatolici (Rome)

UF Ugarit Forschungen (Neukirchen-Vluyn/Münster)

WO Die Welt des Orients (Wuppertal/Göttingen)

ZA Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie (Berlin)

Elements of bibliography by region

This bibliogroaphy arranged by region includes the following sections:

1. Mesopotamia

2. The Levant and Anatolia

3. The Arabian Gulf Region

4. The Ancient Near East (comprehensive studies)

Click here to get this bibliography in PDF

1. Mesopotamia
Albenda, P. A Mediterranean seascape from Khorsabad, Assur 3/3, 1983.
Alivernini, S. Two additions to the corpus of inspection texts of shipyard (kurum7  ak  mar-sa), NABU 2011/52, 55–56.
Alivernini, S. La struttura amministrativa del mar-sa nella documentazione della III dinastia di Ur, Pisa-Rome, 2013.
Alivernini, S. Some considerations on the nanagement of an administrative structure in Ur III Mesopotamia: the case of mar-sa, in: S. Garfinkle / M. Molina (eds.), From the 21st Century B.C. to the 21st Century A.D.: Proceedings of the International Conference on Neo-Sumerian Studies Held in Madrid, 22–24 July 2010, Winona lake, 2013, 105–113.
Askenazi, T. Native river boats in Iraq, Ethnos 22, 1–2, 1957, 50–56.
Balke, Th. E. Eine neusumerische Urkunde über Materialien für den Schiffbau, UF 25, 1993, 1–8.
Bourriau, J. / Oates, J. Spinning or tailing? The boat models from Eridu, Antiquity 71, 1997, 719–721.
Casson, L. The river boats of Mesopotamia, The Mariner’s Mirror 53/3, 1967, 286–288.
Charpin, D. La politique hydraulique des rois paléo-babyloniens, Annales 57, 2002, 545–559 [Irrigation ou transport par bateaux : un dilemme?, 553–555]
Civil, M. Note lexikographique sur SUḪUR/KA, RA 61, 1967, 63–68 [reed mats for ships].
D’agostino, F. / BM 106145: un nuovo testo da Umma che menziona personale  Santagati, E. del cantiere navale (mar-sa), in: P. Michalowski (ed.), On the Third Dynasty of Ur. Studies in Honor of Marcel Sigrist, Boston, 2008, 1–9.
Fales, F. M Il taglio e il transporto di legname nelle lettere a Sargon II, in: O. Carruba / M. Liverani / C. Zaccagnini (eds.), Studi orientalistici in ricordo di Franco Pintore, Pavia, 1983, 49–92.
Fales, F. M. River transport in Neo-Assyrian Letters, Šulmu IV, 1993, 79– 92.
Finet, A. L’Euphrate, une route commerciale de la Mésopotamie, AAAS 19, 1969, 37–48.
Finkel, I. L. The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood, London, 2014.
Gawlikowski, M. Thapsacus and Zeugma. The crossing of the Euphrates in antiquity, Iraq 58, 1996, 123–133.
Graeve, Ch. de The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c. 2000-500 BC), Leuven, 1981 (OLA 7).
Gomi, T. A note on gur, capacity unit of the Ur III period, ZA 83, 1993, 31–41.
Göttlicher, A. Schiffbau im Zweistromland, Das Logbuch 1–3, 1969–1970.
Göttlicher, A. Un document pour l’étude des techniques nautiques babyloniennes – deux terre cuites conservés au Musée de Rouen, Le petit perroquet 12 (Grenoble), 1973/1974, 60–63.
Göttlicher, A. Das sumerische Bootsmodell Sydney 40, AW 5, 1974, 43–44.
Guichard, M. Flote crétoise sur l’Euphrate?, NABU 7, 1993/53, 29–31.
Heimpel, W. Das Untere Meer, ZA 77, 1987, 22–91.
Heimpel, W. The location of Madga, JCS 61, 2009, 25–61.
Heimpel, W. Twenty-eight trees growing in Sumer, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 75–152 (CUSAS 6).
Heimpel, W. On the location of the forests of Garšana, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 153–159 (CUSAS 6).
Heimpel, W. Two unrecognized terms in Ur III accounts of boat transport, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 161–175 (CUSAS 6).
Hempelmann, R.  „Gottschiff“ und „Zikkurratbau“ auf vorderasiatischen Rollsiegeln des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr., Münster 2004 (AOAT 312).
Joannès, F. Les droits sur l’eau en Babylonie récente, Annales 57, 2002, 577–609 [La navigation, 597–608].
Kupper, J.-R. Les prix à Mari, OLA 13, 1982, 115–121 (specially 173–185).
Kupper, J.-R. Le commerce à Mari, Bulletin de la Classe de Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Politiques 1–2, 1991, 41–47.
Legrain, L. The golden boats of Marduk and Nabu in Babylon, The Museum Journal 14, 1923, 267–281.
Linder, E. The Khorsabad wall relief: A mediterranean seascape or river transport of timbers?, JAOS 106, 1986, 273–281.
Mäkelä, T. T. Ships and Shipbuilding in Mesopotamia, unpubl. MA Thesis, Texas, 2002.
Mayer-Opificius, R. Götterprozessionen, in: J.-W. Meyer / M. Novák / A. Pruß. (eds.), Beiträge zur Vorderasiatischen Archäologie, Winfried Orthmann gewidmet, Frankfurt, 2001, 282–291.
Mayer-Opificius, R. Götterreisen im Alten Orient, in: O. Loretz / K. A. Metzler / H. Schaudig (eds.), Ex Mesopotamia et Syria Lux. Festschrift für Manfried Dietrich zu seinem 65. Geburtstag, Münster, 2002 (AOAT 281), 369–387.
Nützel, W. Lag Ur einst am Meer?, MDOG 112, 1980, 95–102.
Nützel, W. Die ökologischen Vorzüge küstennaher Besiedlungsstätten Mesopotamiens, MDOG 112, 1980, 103–114.
Oates, J. / Davidson, T. E / Seafaring Merchants of Ur?, Antiquity 51, 1977, 221–234. Kamill, D. / McKerel, H.
Ochsenschlager, E. Ethnographic evidence for wood, boats, bitumen and reeds in southern Iraq, BSA 6, 1992, 42–78.
Ochsenschlager, E. Iraq’s Marsh Arabs in the Garden of Eden, Pennsylvania, 2004.
Oppenheim, A. L. The seafaring merchants of Ur, JAOS 74, 1954, 6–17.
Pedersen, R. K. The Boatbuilding Sequence in the Gilgamesh Epic and the Sewn Boat Relation, Diss. Texas, 2003.
Pedersen, R. K. Traditional Arabian watercraft and the ark of the Gilgamesh epic: interpretations and realizations, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 34, 2004, 231–238.
Pedersen, R. K. Was Noah’s ark a sewn boat?, BAR 31/3, 2005, 18–23 and 55– 56
Price, I. M. Transportation by water in early Babylonia, AJSL 40, 19231924, 111–116.
Qualls, C. Boats of Mesopotamia before 2000 B.C., Diss. Columbia University, 1981.
Ritter, H. Arabische Flußfahrzeuge am Euphrat und Tigris, Der Islam 9, 1919, 121–143.
Ritter, N. C. Vom Euphrat zu Mekong – Maritime Kontakte zwischen Vorder- und Südostasien in vorislamischer Zeit, MDOG 141, 2009, 143–171.
Roaf, M. / Galbraith, J. Pottery and p-values: ‘Seafaring merchants of Ur?’ re-examined, Antiquity 68, 1994, 770–783.
Römer, W. H. Ph. Beiträge zum Lexikon des Sumerischen (4). Termini für Schiffe und Schiffahrt, Schiffsteile und Schiffszubehör – vor allem in sumerischen ‘literarischen’ Texten, M. Dietrich / O. Loretz (eds.), Mesopotamica – Ugaritica – Biblica. Festschrift für Kurt Bergerhof zur Vollendung seines 70. Lebensjahres am 7. Mai 1992, Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1993, 343–395 (AOAT 232).
Sallaberger, W. Urban Organizations for Offerings, Overland Traffic and the Euphrates Trade at Pre-Sargonic Mari, in: Mari, ni Est, ni Ouest. Syria, Supplement 2. Beyrouth, 2014, 341–354.
Salonen, A. Zum Verständnis des sumerischen Schilfbautextes AO 5673 mit Berücksichtigung des Textes VAT 7035, Helsinki, 1938 (Studia Orientalia 8/3).
Salonen, A. Die Wasserfahrzeuge in Babylonien, Helsinki, 1939 (Studis Orientalia 8/4).
Salonen, A. Nautica Babyloniaca, Helsinki, 1942.
Samuel, E. M. A Study of Possible Trade Routes Between Egypt and Mesopotamia, ca. 3500-3100 BC, MA Texas, 1993.
Sauren, H. Besuchfahrten der Götter in Sumer, Or NS 38, 1969, 214–236.
Schneider, N. Götterschiffe im Ur III Reich, Helsinki, 1946 (Studia Orientalia 13).
Selz, G. Von Treidlern, Schiff(bau)ern und Werftarbeitern: ArOr 66, 1998, 255–264.  Selz, G. J. Den Fährmann bezahlen! Eine lexikalisch-kulturhistorische Skizze zu den Bedeutungen von addir, AoF 22, 1995, 197–209.
Selz, G. J. Zur Holzwirtschaft im altsumerischen Lagaš, in: L. Vacín (ed.), u4 du11-ga-ni sá mu-ni-ib-du11. Ancient Near Easten Studies in Memory of Blahoslav Hruška, Dresden, 2011, 213–246.
Schmidtke, F. Wasserpflöcke (Gilg. XI 63), Fs J. Friedrich, 1958, 427–434.
Steinkeller, P. The Foresters of Umma: Toward a Definition of Ur III Labor, in: M. Powell (ed.), Labor in the Ancient Near East, New Haven, 1987 (AOS 68), 73–115.
Stol, M. Bitumen in Ancient Mesopotamia. The textual evidence, BiOr 69, 2012, 48–60.
Strasser, T. F. The boat models from Eridu: Sailing or Spinning during the “Ubaid Period”, Antiquity 70, 1996, 920–925.
Vosmer, T. Shipping in the Bronze-Age: how large was a 60-gur ship?, in: E. Olijdam / R. Spoor (eds.), Intercultural Relations Between South and South-West Asia in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxford, 2008, 230–235.
Waetzold, H. The use of wool for the production of strings, ropes, braided mats, and similar fabrics, in: C. Gillis / M.-L. B. Nosch (eds.), Ancient Textiles. Production, Craft and Society, Oxford, 2007, 112–121.
Wagensonner, K. „Wenn Götter reisen …“, Götterreisen, -prozessionen und Besuchfahrten in den sumerischen literarischen Texten, unpubl. Diplomarbeit, Wien, 2005.
Wagensonner, K. Götterreise oder Herrscherreise oder vielleicht beides? Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 97 (Fs Hunger), 2007, 541-559.
Weszeli, M. Textzeugen zu Schiffen und Schiffern im Zweiten und ersten Jahrtausend v. Chr.: Die Schifffahrt im Süden Mesopotamiens und in Mari, unpubl. Diss., Wien, 2002.
Weszeli, M. The costs of transporting goods, in: M. Jursa et al., Aspects of the Economic History of Babylonia in the First Millennium B.C. Economic Geography, Economic Mentalities, Agriculture, the Use of Money and the Problem of Economic Growth, Münster 2010 (AOAT 377), 140–152.
Weszeli, M. Schiff und Boot. B: In mesopotamischen Quellen des 2. und 1. Jahrtausends, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 160–171.
Weszeli, M. Schiff und Boot. D: Archäologisch, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 174– 176.
Widell, M. Schiff und Boot. A: In den sumerischen Quellen, RlA 12, 2009– 2011, 158–160.
Zarins, J. Magan shipbuilders at the Ur III Lagash state dockyards (2062– 2025 BC), in: E. Olijdam / R. Spoor (eds.), Intercultural Relations Between South and South-West Asia in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxford, 2008, 209–229.

2. The Levant and Anatolia  
Arnaud, D. Les ports de la «Phénicie» à la fin de l’âge du Bronze récent (XIV-XIII siècles) d’après les textes cunéiformes de Syrie, SMEA 30, 1992, 179–194.
Artzy, M. Mariners and their boats at the end of the Late Bronze and the beginning of the iron age in the eastern Mediterranean, Tel Aviv 30, 2003, 232–246.
Ballard, R. D./ Iron Age ship wrecks in deep water of Ashkelon, AJA 2002,  Stager, L. E. et al. 151–168.
Bartoloni, P. Navires et navigation, in: V. Krings (ed.), La civilisation phénicienne et punique, Leiden, 1995, 282–289.
Bass, G. F. Cape Gelidonya, A Bronze Age shipwreck, 1967 (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57, part 8).
Bass, G. F. A Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun (Kas): 1984 Campaign, AJA 90, 1986, 269–296.
Beal, R. H. Schiff und Boot. C: Bei den Hethitern, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 171–174.
Brody, A. J. Further Evidence of the Specialized Religion of Phoenician Seafarers, in: J. Pollini (ed.), Terra Marique: Studies in Honour of Anna Marguerite McCann on the Receipt of the Gold Medal of the Archaeological Institute of America, Oxford, 2005, 177– 182.
Carayon, N. Les ports phéniciens du Liban, milieux naturels, organisation spatiale et infrastructures, Archaeology and History in the Lebanon 36–37, 2012–2013, 1–137.
Carayon, N. / Geoarchaeology of Byblos, Tyre, Sidon and Beirut, Rivista di  Marriner, N. / Morhange, C. Studi Fenici 39/1, 2011, 45–56.
Christian, M. Phoenician maritime religion: Sailors, goddess worship, and the Grotta Regina, WO 43, 2013, 179–205.
Dietrich, M./Loretz, O. Schiffshandel und Schiffsmiete zwischen Byblos und Ugarit: UF 22, 1990 (published 1991), 89–96.
Frost, H. The stone-anchors of Byblos, Beirut, 1969 (Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph 45/26).
Gestoso, G. Forms of payment in the Amarna Age and in the Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya shipwrecks, UF 42, 2010 [published 2011], 261–278.
Haggi, A. / Artzy, M. The Harbor of Atlit in Northern Canaanite/Phoenician Context, Near Eastern Archaeology 70/2, 2007, 75–84.
Kingsley, S. A. / Raveh, K The Ancient Harbour and Anchorage at Dor, Israel, Oxford (BAR International Series 626), 1996.
Kingsley, S. A. Shipwreck Archaeology of the Holy Land, London, 2004.
Linder, E. A Canaanite thalassocracy, in: G. D. Young (ed.), Ugarit in retrospect. 50 Years of Ugarit and Ugaritic, Winona Lake, 1981, 31–42.
Linder, E. Ma‘agan Micha’el (The Shipwreck), in: NEAEHL 3, 918–919.
Liphschitz, N. Cedars of Lebanon: Exploring the roots, BAR 39/3, 2013, 49–56 and 71.
Liphschitz, N. /Pulak, C. Wood species used in ancient shipbuilding in Turkey, Skyllis 8, 2007-2008, 73–82.
Liverani, M. The trade network of Tyre according to Ezek. 27, in: M. Cogan / I. Eph’al (eds.), Ah Assyria … Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor, Jerusalem, 1991, 65–79.
Marriner, N Geoarchaeology of Lebanon’s Ancient Harbours, 2009 (BAR International Series 1953).
Marriner, N. / Ancient harbour infrastructure in the Levant: tracking the birth  Morhange, C. /  and rise of new forms of anthropogenic pressure. Scientific Re- Kaniewski, D. / Carayon, N.  ports 4, 5554, 2014 (DOI:10.1038/srep05554).
Master, D. M. The Seaport of Ashqelon in the Seventh Century BCE: A Petrographic Study, PhD. Diss. University of Harvard, 2001.
Morhange C. / La mobilité des paysages portuaires antiques du Liban, Beirut,  Saghieh-Beydoun M. (eds.) 2005 (BAAL hors-série 2).
Patai, R. The Children of Noah. Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times, Princeton, 1998.
Pulak, C. Ulu Burun: 1989 excavation campaign, INA Newsletter 16.4, 1989, 4–11.
Pulak, C. Ulu Burun: 1990 excavation campaign, INA Newsletter 17.4, 1990, 8–13.
Pulak, C. The Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun, 1991 field season: “Ingot summer”, INA Newsletter 18.4, 1991, 4–10.
Pulak, C. The Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun, Turkey: 1992 field season, INA Quarterly 19.4, 1992, 4–11, 21.
Pulak, C. The shipwreck at Uluburun: 1993 excavation campaign, The INA Quarterly 20.4, 1993, 4–12.
Pulak, C. 1994 excavation at Uluburun: The final campaign, The INA Quarterly 21.4, 1994, 8–16.
Pulak, C. The Uluburun shipwreck, in: S. Swiny / R. L. Hohlfelder / H. W. Swiny (eds.), Res Maritimae: Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, Nicosia, Cyprus 18-21 October 1994, Atlanta, 1997 (ASOR Archaeological Reports 4), 233–262.
Pulak, C. The Uluburun shipwreck: An overview, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 27, 1998, 188–224.
Pulak, C. The late bronze age shipwreck at Uluburun; Aspects of hull construction, in: W. Phelps / Y. Lolos / Y. Vichos (eds.), proceedings of the International Conference, Island of Spetses, 19 September 1998, Athens, 1999, 209–238, Athen, 1999, 209– 238.
Pulak, C. Hull consruction of the late bronze age shipwreck at Uluburun, INA Quarterly 26/1, 1999, 16–21.
Pulak, C. The Uluburun Hull Remains, in: H. E. Tzalas (ed.), Tropis VII. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity (27 August – 31 August, 2000, Pylos), Athens, 2003, 615–636.
Raban, A.  The ancient harbours of Israel in Biblical Times, in: A. Raban (ed.), Harbour Arcaeology. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Ancient Mediterranean Harbours, Caesarea Maritima 24.–28.8.83, Haifa-UK, 1985 (BAR International Series 257) 11–44.
Raban, A. The constructive maritime role of the Sea Peoples in the Levant, in: M. Heltzer / E. Lipi
ń ski (eds.), Society and Economy in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1500-1000 B.C.), Löwen, 1988 (OLA 23), 261-294.
Raban, A. Phoenician Harbours in the Levant, Michmanim 11, 1997, 7–27.
Raban, A. Near Eastern Harbours: Thirteenth-Seventh Centuries BCE, in: S. Gitin / A. Mazar / E. Stern (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition (Fs Trude Dothan), Jerusalem, 1998, 428–438.
Sasson, J. M. Canaanite maritime involvement in the second millennium B.C., JAOS 86, 1966, 126–138.
Sauvage, C. Routes maritimes et systèmes d’échanges internationaux au bronze récent en méditerranée orientale, Lyon, 2013 (Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée No 61), chap. v, Les navires, 213–263.
Schwartz, M. Early evidence of reed boats from southeast Anatolia, Antiquity 76, 2002, 617–618.
Schwartz, M. / Reconstructing Mesopotamian exchange networks in the 4th  Hollander, D. / Stein, G. millennium BC: geochemical and archaeological analyses of bitumen artifacts from Hacinebi Tepe, Turkey, Paléorient 25/1, 1999, 67–82.
Singer, I. Ships bound for Lukka. A new interpretation of the companion letters RS 94.1530 and RS 94.2523, AoF 33, 2006, 242–262.
Singer, I. Schiffe nach Lukka: Ene neue Deutung des Briefpaares RS94.2530 und RS 94.2523, in: H. Matthäus / N. Oettinger / St. Schröder (eds.), Der Orient und die Anfänge Europas. Kulturelle Beziehungen von der Späten Bronzezeit bis zur Frühen Eisenzeit, Wiesbaden, 2011, 49–72 (Philippika 42).
Stager, L. E. Phoenician Shipwrecks and the Ship Tyre (Ezekiel 27), in: J. Pollini (ed.), Terra Marique: Studies in Honour of Anna Marguerite McCann on the Receipt of the Gold Medal of the Archaeological Institute of America, Oxford, 2005, 238–254.
Stefaniuk, L. et al. Localisation et étude paléoenvironnementale des ports antiques de Byblos, Baal Hors-Série II, 2005, 283–307.
Steiner, G. „Schiffe von Aḫḫijawa“ oder „Kriegsschiffe“ von Amurru im Šauškamuwa-Vertrag?, UF 21, 1989, 393–411.
Tropper, J. / Vita, J.–P. Pächter für den Hafen und die Landzugänge von Ugarit. Neue Überlegungen zu KTU 4.172, 4.266, 4.336 und 4.338, UF 33, 2001, 573–578.
Vita, J. P. Los antecedentes de la marina fenicia: barcos en Ugarit, in: M. Barthélmy / M. E. Aubet (eds.), Actas del Congreso Internacional de Estudios Fenicios y Púnicos, Cádiz, 1995, 281– 288.
Wachsmann, Sh. The Galilee boat – 2,000-year-old hull recovered intact, BAR 14/5, 1988.
Wachsmann, Sh. Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, 1998. [Rez. JNES 62, 2003, 30-31 (H. Genz)]
Wachsmann, Sh. The Sea of Galilee Boat, Texas A&M University Press, 2009.
Wittke, A.-M. Hafenorte und ihre Bedeutung für die « Außenwirkung » des späthethitischen Raumes (ca. 1200-700 v. Chr.), in: M. Novák / F. Prayon / A.-M. Wittke (eds.), Die Außenwirkung des späthethitischen Kulturraumes, Münster, 2004 (AOAT 323).
Xella, P. Die Ausrüstung eines kanaanäischen Schiffes (KTU 4.689): WO 13, 1982 (ersch. 1983) 31–35.
Yalçin, Ü. / Pulak, C. / Das Schiff von Uluburun. Welthandel vor 3000 Jahren. Katalog  Slotta, R. (eds.) der Ausstellung des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum vom 15. Juli 2005 bis 16. Juli 2006, Bochum, 2005.

3. The Arabian Gulf region  
Carter, R. A. Boat remains and maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the sixth and fifth millennia BCE, Antiquity 80, 2006, 52–63.
Carter, R. A. Excavations and Ubaid-period boat remains at H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), in: E. Olijdam / R. H. Spoor (eds.), Inercultural Relatiosn between South and Southwest Asia, Studies in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxfordshire, 2008, 92–102 (BAR International Seires 1826).
Cleuziou, S. Early Bronze Age trade in the Gulf and the Arabian Sea: The society behind the boats, in: D. Potts et al. (eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates, London, 2003, 133–150.
Cleuziou, S. / Tosi, M. Black boats of Magan. Some thoughts on Bronze-Age water transport in Oman and beyond from impressed bitumen slabs of Ra’s al-Junays, in: A. Parpola / P. Koskikallio (eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1993, Volume II, Helsinki, 1994, 745–761.
Cleuziou, S. / Tosi, M. Ra’s al-Junays and the prehistoric coastal cultures of the Ja’alan, Journal of Oman Studies 11, 2000, 19–74.
Connan, J. et al. A comparative geochemical study of bituminous boat remains from H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), and Ra’s al-Jinz (Oman), Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 15, 2005, 1–46.
Potts, D. T. Waterkraft of the Lower Sea, in: U. Finkbeiner / R. Dittmann / H. Hauptmann (eds.), Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens. Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer, Mainz, 1995, 559–571.
Potts, D. T. Watercraft, in: D. T. Potts, Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations, London, 1997, 122–137.
Vosmer, T. Ships in the ancient Arabian Sea: the development of a hypothetical reed boat model, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 30, 2000, 235-242.
Vosmer, T. The naval architecture of Early Bronze Age reed-built boats of the Arabian Sea, in: D. Potts et al. (eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates , London, 2003, 151–158.
Vosmer, T. The Magan Boat Project: a process of discovery, a discovery of process, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 33, 2003, 49–58.

 
4. The Ancient Near East (comprehensive studies)  
Barnett, R. D. Early shipping in the Near East, Antiquity 32, 1958, 220–230.
Bass, G. F. Sea and River Craft in the Ancient Near East, in: J. M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Vol III., New York, 1995, 1421–1431.
Carter, R. A. Watercraft, in: D. T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Malden-Oxford, 2012, 347–372.
Göttlicher, A. Materialien für ein Corpus der Schiffmodelle im Altertum, Wiesbaden, 1978.
Meyer, J.-W. J.-W. Meyer, Die Bedeutung der Bootsmodelle aus dem Alten Orient, in: Th. Richter / D. Prechel /J. Klinger (eds.), Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalischen Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag, Saarbrücken, 2002, 267–283.
Röllig, W. Altorientalische Schiffsmetaphorik: V. Drehsen / D. Henke / R. Schmidt-Rost / W. Steck, Wolfgang (eds.), Der ‘ganze Mensch’. Perspektiven lebensgeschichtlicher Individualität. Festschrift für Dietrich Rössler zum siebzigsten Geburtstag (Arbeiten zur Praktischen Theologie 10), Berlin/New York 1997, 13–18.
Stieglitz, R. R. Long-distance seafaring in the Ancient Near East, BA 47, 1984, 134–142.

Elements of bibliography by period

This bibliography arranged by period includes the following sections:

1. Third millennium or earlier

2. Second millennium

3. First millennium

4. Diachronic studies (more than one period)

5. Related ethnographic studies

Click here to get this bibliography in PDF

1. Third millennium or earlier  
Alivernini, S. Two additions to the corpus of inspection texts of shipyard (kurum7  ak  mar-sa), NABU 2011/52, 55–56.
Alivernini, S. La struttura amministrativa del mar-sa nella documentazione della III dinastia di Ur, Pisa-Rome, 2013.
Alivernini, S. Some considerations on the nanagement of an administrative structure in Ur III Mesopotamia: the case of mar-sa, in: S. Garfinkle / M. Molina (eds.), From the 21st Century B.C. to the 21st Century A.D.: Proceedings of the International Conference on Neo-Sumerian Studies Held in Madrid, 22–24 July 2010, Winona lake, 2013, 105–113.
Balke, Th. E. Eine neusumerische Urkunde über Materialien für den Schiffbau, UF 25, 1993, 1–8.
Bourriau, J. / Oates, J. Spinning or tailing? The boat models from Eridu, Antiquity 71, 1997, 719–721.
Carter, R. A. Boat remains and maritime trade in the Persian Gulf during the sixth and fifth millennia BCE, Antiquity 80, 2006, 52–63.
Carter, R. A. Excavations and Ubaid-period boat remains at H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), in: E. Olijdam / R. H. Spoor (eds.), Inercultural Relatiosn between South and Southwest Asia, Studies in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxfordshire, 2008, 92–102 (BAR International Seires 1826).
Civil, M. Note lexikographique sur SUḪUR/KA, RA 61, 1967, 63–68 [reed mats for ships].
Cleuziou, S. Early Bronze Age trade in the Gulf and the Arabian Sea: The society behind the boats, in: D. Potts et al. (eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates, London, 2003, 133–150.
Cleuziou, S. / Tosi, M. Black boats of Magan. Some thoughts on Bronze-Age water transport in Oman and beyond from impressed bitumen slabs of Ra’s al-Junays, in: A. Parpola / P. Koskikallio (eds.), South Asian Archaeology 1993, Volume II, Helsinki, 1994, 745–761.
Cleuziou, S. / Tosi, M. Ra’s al-Junays and the prehistoric coastal cultures of the Ja’alan, Journal of Oman Studies 11, 2000, 19–74.
Connan, J. et al. A comparative geochemical study of bituminous boat remains from H3, As-Sabiyah (Kuwait), and Ra’s al-Jinz (Oman), Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 15, 2005, 1–46.
D’agostino, F. / BM 106145: un nuovo testo da Umma che menziona personale  Santagati, E. del cantiere navale (mar-sa), in: P. Michalowski (ed.), On the Third Dynasty of Ur. Studies in Honor of Marcel Sigrist, Boston, 2008, 1–9.
Gomi, T. A note on gur, capacity unit of the Ur III period, ZA 83, 1993, 31–41.
Göttlicher, A. Das sumerische Bootsmodell Sydney 40, AW 5, 1974, 43–44.
Heimpel, W. Das Untere Meer, ZA 77, 1987, 22–91.
Heimpel, W. The location of Madga, JCS 61, 2009, 25–61.
Heimpel, W. Twenty-eight trees growing in Sumer, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 75–152 (CUSAS 6).
Heimpel, W. On the location of the forests of Garšana, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 153–159 (CUSAS 6).
Heimpel, W. Two unrecognized terms in Ur III accounts of boat transport, in: D. Owen (ed.), Garšana Studies, Bethesda, 2011, 161–175 (CUSAS 6).
Hempelmann, R.  „Gottschiff“ und „Zikkurratbau“ auf vorderasiatischen Rollsiegeln des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr., Münster 2004 (AOAT 312).
Nützel, W. Lag Ur einst am Meer?, MDOG 112, 1980, 95–102.
Nützel, W. Die ökologischen Vorzüge küstennaher Besiedlungsstätten Mesopotamiens, MDOG 112, 1980, 103–114.
Qualls, C. Boats of Mesopotamia before 2000 B.C., Diss. Columbia University, 1981.
Römer, W. H. Ph. Beiträge zum Lexikon des Sumerischen (4). Termini für Schiffe und Schiffahrt, Schiffsteile und Schiffszubehör – vor allem in sumerischen ‘literarischen’ Texten, M. Dietrich / O. Loretz (eds.), Mesopotamica – Ugaritica – Biblica. Festschrift für Kurt Bergerhof zur Vollendung seines 70. Lebensjahres am 7. Mai 1992, Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1993, 343–395 (AOAT 232).
Sallaberger, W. Urban Organizations for Offerings, Overland Traffic and the Euphrates Trade at Pre-Sargonic Mari, in: Mari, ni Est, ni Ouest. Syria, Supplement 2. Beyrouth, 2014, 341–354.
Salonen, A. Zum Verständnis des sumerischen Schilfbautextes AO 5673 mit Berücksichtigung des Textes VAT 7035, Helsinki, 1938 (Studia Orientalia 8/3,).
Samuel, E. M. A Study of Possible Trade Routes Between Egypt and Mesopotamia, ca. 3500-3100 BC, MA Texas, 1993.
Sauren, H. Besuchfahrten der Götter in Sumer, Or NS 38, 1969, 214–236.
Schneider, N. Götterschiffe im Ur III Reich, Helsinki, 1946 (Studia Orientalia 13).
Schwartz, M. Early evidence of reed boats from southeast Anatolia, Antiquity 76, 2002, 617–618.
Schwartz, M. / Reconstructing Mesopotamian exchange networks in the 4th  Hollander, D. / Stein, G. millennium BC: geochemical and archaeological analyses of bitumen artifacts from Hacinebi Tepe, Turkey, Paléorient 25/1, 1999, 67–82.
Selz, G. Von Treidlern, Schiff(bau)ern und Werftarbeitern: ArOr 66, 1998, 255–264.
Selz, G. J. Den Fährmann bezahlen! Eine lexikalisch-kulturhistorische Skizze zu den Bedeutungen von addir, AoF 22, 1995, 197–209. Selz, G. J. Zur Holzwirtschaft im altsumerischen Lagaš, in: L. Vacín (ed.), u4 du11-ga-ni sá mu-ni-ib-du11. Ancient Near Easten Studies in Memory of Blahoslav Hruška, Dresden, 2011, 213–246.
Steinkeller, P. The Foresters of Umma: Toward a Definition of Ur III Labor, in: M. Powell (ed.), Labor in the Ancient Near East, New Haven, 1987 (AOS 68), 73–115.
Strasser, T. F. The boat models from Eridu: Sailing or Spinning during the “Ubaid Period”, Antiquity 70, 1996, 920–925.
Vosmer, T. Ships in the ancient Arabian Sea: the development of a hypothetical reed boat model, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 30, 2000, 235-242.
Vosmer, T. The naval architecture of Early Bronze Age reed-built boats of the Arabian Sea, in: D. Potts et al. (eds.), Archaeology of the United Arab Emirates , London, 2003, 151–158.
Vosmer, T. The Magan Boat Project: a process of discovery, a discovery of process, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 33, 2003, 49–58.
Vosmer, T. Shipping in the Bronze-Age: how large was a 60-gur ship?, in: E. Olijdam / R. Spoor (eds.), Intercultural Relations Between South and South-West Asia in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxford, 2008, 230–235.
Waetzold, H. The use of wool for the production of strings, ropes, braided mats, and similar fabrics, in: C. Gillis / M.-L. B. Nosch (eds.), Ancient Textiles. Production, Craft and Society, Oxford, 2007, 112–121.
Wagensonner, K. „Wenn Götter reisen …“, Götterreisen, -prozessionen und Besuchfahrten in den sumerischen literarischen Texten, unpubl. Diplomarbeit, Wien, 2005.
Wagensonner, K. Götterreise oder Herrscherreise oder vielleicht beides? Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 97 (Fs Hunger), 2007, 541-559. Widell, M. Schiff und Boot. A: In den sumerischen Quellen, RlA 12, 2009– 2011, 158–160.
Zarins, J. Magan shipbuilders at the Ur III Lagash state dockyards (2062– 2025 BC), in: E. Olijdam / R. Spoor (eds.), Intercultural Relations Between South and South-West Asia in Commemoration of E. C. L. During Caspers (1934–1996), Oxford, 2008, 209–229.

2. Second millennium  
Arnaud, D. Les ports de la «Phénicie» à la fin de l’âge du Bronze récent (XIV-XIII siècles) d’après les textes cunéiformes de Syrie, SMEA 30, 1992, 179–194.
Artzy, M. Mariners and their boats at the end of the Late Bronze and the beginning of the iron age in the eastern Mediterranean, Tel Aviv 30, 2003, 232–246.
Bass, G. F. Cape Gelidonya, A Bronze Age shipwreck, 1967 (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 57, part 8).
Bass, G. F. A Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun (Kas): 1984 Campaign, AJA 90, 1986, 269–296.
Beal, R. H. Schiff und Boot. C: Bei den Hethitern, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 171–174.
Charpin, D. La politique hydraulique des rois paléo-babyloniens, Annales 57, 2002, 545–559 [Irrigation ou transport par bateaux : un dilemme?, 553–555]
Dietrich, M. / Loretz, O. Schiffshandel und Schiffsmiete zwischen Byblos und Ugarit: UF 22, 1990 (published 1991), 89–96.
Finet, A. L’Euphrate, une route commerciale de la Mésopotamie, AAAS 19, 1969, 37–48.
Finkel, I. L. The Ark Before Noah: Decoding the Story of the Flood, London, 2014.
Gestoso, G. Forms of payment in the Amarna Age and in the Uluburun and Cape Gelidonya shipwrecks, UF 42, 2010 [published 2011], 261–278.
Guichard, M. Flote crétoise sur l’Euphrate?, NABU 7, 1993/53, 29–31.
Haggi, A./Artzy, M. The Harbor of Atlit in Northern Canaanite/Phoenician Context, Near Eastern Archaeology 70/2, 2007, 75–84.
Joannès, F. Les droits sur l’eau en Babylonie récente, Annales 57, 2002, 577–609 [La navigation, 597–608].
Kingsley, S. A. / Raveh, K The Ancient Harbour and Anchorage at Dor, Israel, Oxford (BAR International Series 626), 1996.
Kupper, J.-R. Les prix à Mari, OLA 13, 1982, 115–121 (specially 173–185).
Kupper, J.-R. Le commerce à Mari, Bulletin de la Classe de Lettres et des Sciences Morales et Politiques 1–2, 1991, 41–47.
Linder, E. A Canaanite thalassocracy, in: G. D. Young (ed.), Ugarit in retrospect. 50 Years of Ugarit and Ugaritic, Winona Lake, 1981, 31–42.
Mäkelä, T. T. Ships and Shipbuilding in Mesopotamia, unpubl. MA Thesis, Texas, 2002.
Oates, J. / Davidson, T. E / Seafaring Merchants of Ur?, Antiquity 51, 1977, 221–234. Kamill, D. / McKerel, H.
Oppenheim, A. L. The seafaring merchants of Ur, JAOS 74, 1954, 6–17.
Pedersen, R. K. The Boatbuilding Sequence in the Gilgamesh Epic and the Sewn Boat Relation, Diss. Texas, 2003.
Pedersen, R. K. Traditional Arabian watercraft and the ark of the Gilgamesh epic: interpretations and realizations, Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 34, 2004, 231–238.
Pedersen, R. K. Was Noah’s ark a sewn boat?, BAR 31/3, 2005, 18–23 and 55– 56.
Pulak, C. Ulu Burun: 1989 excavation campaign, INA Newsletter 16.4, 1989, 4–11.
Pulak, C. Ulu Burun: 1990 excavation campaign, INA Newsletter 17.4, 1990, 8–13.
Pulak, C. The Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun, 1991 field season: “Ingot summer”, INA Newsletter 18.4, 1991, 4–10.
Pulak, C. The Late Bronze Age shipwreck at Ulu Burun, Turkey: 1992 field season, INA Quarterly 19.4, 1992, 4–11, 21.
Pulak, C. The shipwreck at Uluburun: 1993 excavation campaign, The INA Quarterly 20.4, 1993, 4–12.
Pulak, C. 1994 excavation at Uluburun: The final campaign, The INA Quarterly 21.4, 1994, 8–16.
Pulak, C. The Uluburun shipwreck, in: S. Swiny / R. L. Hohlfelder / H. W. Swiny (eds.), Res Maritimae: Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, Nicosia, Cyprus 18-21 October 1994, Atlanta, 1997 (ASOR Archaeological Reports 4), 233–262.
Pulak, C. The Uluburun shipwreck: An overview, International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 27, 1998, 188–224.
Pulak, C. The late bronze age shipwreck at Uluburun; Aspects of hull construction, in: W. Phelps / Y. Lolos / Y. Vichos (eds.), proceedings of the International Conference, Island of Spetses, 19 September 1998, Athens, 1999, 209–238, Athen, 1999, 209– 238.
Pulak, C. Hull consruction of the late bronze age shipwreck at Uluburun, INA Quarterly 26/1, 1999, 16–21.
Pulak, C. The Uluburun Hull Remains, in: H. E. Tzalas (ed.), Tropis VII. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ship Construction in Antiquity (27 August – 31 August, 2000, Pylos), Athens, 2003, 615–636.
Raban, A. The constructive maritime role of the Sea Peoples in the Levant, in: M. Heltzer / E. Lipi
ń ski (eds.), Society and Economy in the Eastern Mediterranean (c. 1500-1000 B.C.), Löwen, 1988 (OLA 23), 261-294.
Raban, A. Near Eastern Harbours: Thirteenth-Seventh Centuries BCE, in: S. Gitin / A. Mazar / E. Stern (eds.), Mediterranean Peoples in Transition (Fs Trude Dothan), Jerusalem, 1998, 428–438.
Roaf, M. / Galbraith, J. Pottery and p-values: ‘Seafaring merchants of Ur?’ re-examined, Antiquity 68, 1994, 770–783.
Sasson, J. M. Canaanite maritime involvement in the second millennium B.C., JAOS 86, 1966, 126–138.
Sauvage, C. Routes maritimes et systèmes d’échanges internationaux au bronze récent en méditerranée orientale, Lyon, 2013 (Travaux de la Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée No 61), chap. v, Les navires, 213–263.
Singer, I. Ships bound for Lukka. A new interpretation of the companion letters RS 94.1530 and RS 94.2523, AoF 33, 2006, 242–262.
Singer, I. Schiffe nach Lukka: Ene neue Deutung des Briefpaares RS94.2530 und RS 94.2523, in: H. Matthäus / N. Oettinger / St. Schröder (eds.), Der Orient und die Anfänge Europas. Kulturelle Beziehungen von der Späten Bronzezeit bis zur Frühen Eisenzeit, Wiesbaden, 2011, 49–72 (Philippika 42).
Schmidtke, F. Wasserpflöcke (Gilg. XI 63), Fs J. Friedrich, 1958, 427–434. Steiner, G. „Schiffe von Aḫḫijawa“ oder „Kriegsschiffe“ von Amurru im Šauškamuwa-Vertrag?, UF 21, 1989, 393–411.
Tropper, J. / Vita, J.–P. Pächter für den Hafen und die Landzugänge von Ugarit. Neue Überlegungen zu KTU 4.172, 4.266, 4.336 und 4.338, UF 33, 2001, 573–578.
Vita, J. P. Los antecedentes de la marina fenicia: barcos en Ugarit, in: M. Barthélmy / M. E. Aubet (eds.), Actas del Congreso Internacional de Estudios Fenicios y Púnicos, Cádiz, 1995, 281– 288.
Xella, P. Die Ausrüstung eines kanaanäischen Schiffes (KTU 4.689): WO 13, 1982 (ersch. 1983) 31–35.
Yalçin, Ü. / Pulak, C. / Das Schiff von Uluburun. Welthandel vor 3000 Jahren. Katalog  Slotta, R. (eds.) der Ausstellung des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum vom 15. Juli 2005 bis 16. Juli 2006, Bochum, 2005.

3. First millennium  
Albenda, P. A Mediterranean seascape from Khorsabad, Assur 3/3, 1983.
Ballard, R. D. / Iron Age ship wrecks in deep water of Ashkelon, AJA 2002,  Stager, L.E. et al. 151–168.
Bartoloni, P. Navires et navigation, in: V. Krings (ed.), La civilisation phénicienne et punique, Leiden, 1995, 282–289.
Brody, A. J. Further Evidence of the Specialized Religion of Phoenician Seafarers, in: J. Pollini (ed.), Terra Marique: Studies in Honour of Anna Marguerite McCann on the Receipt of the Gold Medal of the Archaeological Institute of America, Oxford, 2005, 177– 182.
Carayon, N. Les ports phéniciens du Liban, milieux naturels, organisation spatiale et infrastructures, Archaeology and History in the Lebanon 36–37, 2012–2013, 1–137.
Carayon, N. / Geoarchaeology of Byblos, Tyre, Sidon and Beirut, Rivista di  Marriner, N. / Studi Fenici 39/1, 2011, 45–56. Morhange, Ch.
Christian, M. Phoenician maritime religion: Sailors, goddess worship, and the Grotta Regina, WO 43, 2013, 179–205.
Fales, F. M Il taglio e il transporto di legname nelle lettere a Sargon II, in: O. Carruba / M. Liverani / C. Zaccagnini (eds.), Studi orientalistici in ricordo di Franco Pintore, Pavia, 1983, 49–92.
Fales, F. M. River transport in Neo-Assyrian Letters, Šulmu IV, 1993, 79– 92.
Frost, H. The stone-anchors of Byblos, Beirut, 1969 (Mélanges de l’Université Saint-Joseph 45/26).
Gawlikowski, M. Thapsacus and Zeugma. The crossing of the Euphrates in antiquity, Iraq 58, 1996, 123–133,
Linder, E. The Khorsabad wall relief: A mediterranean seascape or river transport of timbers?, JAOS 106, 1986, 273–281.
Linder, E. Ma‘agan Micha’el (The Shipwreck), in: NEAEHL 3, 918–919.
Liphschitz, N. Cedars of Lebanon: Exploring the roots, BAR 39/3, 2013, 49–56 and 71.
Liverani, M. The trade network of Tyre according to Ezek. 27, in: M. Cogan / I. Eph’al (eds.), Ah Assyria … Studies in Assyrian History and Ancient Near Eastern Historiography Presented to Hayim Tadmor, Jerusalem, 1991, 65–79.
Master, D. M. The Seaport of Ashqelon in the Seventh Century BCE: A Petrographic Study, PhD. Diss. University of Harvard, 2001.
Patai, R. The Children of Noah. Jewish Seafaring in Ancient Times, Princeton, 1998.
Raban, A.  The ancient harbours of Israel in Biblical Times, in: A. Raban (ed.), Harbour Arcaeology. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Ancient Mediterranean Harbours, Caesarea Maritima 24.–28.8.83, Haifa-UK, 1985 (BAR International Series 257) 11–44.
Raban, A. Phoenician Harbours in the Levant, Michmanim 11, 1997, 7–27.
Ritter, N. C. Vom Euphrat zu Mekong – Maritime Kontakte zwischen Vorder- und Südostasien in vorislamischer Zeit, MDOG 141, 2009, 143–171.
Stager, L. E. Phoenician Shipwrecks and the Ship Tyre (Ezekiel 27), in: J. Pollini (ed.), Terra Marique: Studies in Honour of Anna Marguerite McCann on the Receipt of the Gold Medal of the Archaeological Institute of America, Oxford, 2005, 238–254. Wachsmann, Sh. The Galilee boat – 2,000-year-old hull recovered intact, BAR 14/5, 1988.
Wachsmann, Sh. The Sea of Galilee Boat, Texas A&M University Press, 2009.
Weszeli, M. The costs of transporting goods, in: M. Jursa et al., Aspects of the Economic History of Babylonia in the First Millennium B.C. Economic Geography, Economic Mentalities, Agriculture, the Use of Money and the Problem of Economic Growth, Münster 2010 (AOAT 377), 140–152.
Wittke, A.-M. Hafenorte und ihre Bedeutung für die « Außenwirkung » des späthethitischen Raumes (ca. 1200-700 v. Chr.), in: M. Novák / F. Prayon / A.-M. Wittke (eds.), Die Außenwirkung des späthethitischen Kulturraumes, Münster, 2004 (AOAT 323).

4. Diachronic studies  
Barnett, R. D. Early shipping in the Near East, Antiquity 32, 1958, 220–230.
Bass, G. F. Sea and River Craft in the Ancient Near East, in: J. M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Vol III., New York, 1995, 1421–1431.
Carter, R. A. Watercraft, in: D. T. Potts (ed.), A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Malden-Oxford, 2012, 347–372.
Casson, L. The river boats of Mesopotamia, The Mariner’s Mirror 53/3, 1967, 286–288.
Graeve, Ch. de The Ships of the Ancient Near East (c. 2000-500 BC), Leuven, 1981 (OLA 7).
Göttlicher, A. Schiffbau im Zweistromland, Das Logbuch 1–3, 1969–1970.
Göttlicher, A. Un document pour l’étude des techniques nautiques babyloniennes – deux terre cuites conservés au Musée de Rouen, Le petit perroquet 12 (Grenoble), 1973/1974, 60–63.
Göttlicher, A. Materialien für ein Corpus der Schiffmodelle im Altertum, Wiesbaden, 1978.
Kingsley, S. A. Shipwreck Archaeology of the Holy Land, London, 2004.
Legrain, L. The golden boats of Marduk and Nabu in Babylon, The Museum Journal 14, 1923, 267–281.
Liphschitz, N. /Pulak, C. Wood species used in ancient shipbuilding in Turkey, Skyllis 8, 2007-2008, 73–82.
Marriner, N Geoarchaeology of Lebanon’s Ancient Harbours, 2009 (BAR International Series 1953).
Marriner, N. /  Ancient harbour infrastructure in the Levant: tracking the birth  Morhange, C. /  and rise of new forms of anthropogenic pressure. Scientific Re- Kaniewski, D. / Carayon, N. ports 4, 5554, 2014 (DOI:10.1038/srep05554).
Mayer-Opificius, R. Götterprozessionen, in: J.-W. Meyer / M. Novák / A. Pruß. (eds.), Beiträge zur Vorderasiatischen Archäologie, Winfried Orthmann gewidmet, Frankfurt, 2001, 282–291.
Mayer-Opificius, R. Götterreisen im Alten Orient, in: O. Loretz / K. A. Metzler / H. Schaudig (eds.), Ex Mesopotamia et Syria Lux. Festschrift für Manfried Dietrich zu seinem 65. Geburtstag, Münster, 2002 (AOAT 281), 369–387.
Meyer, J.-W. J.-W. Meyer, Die Bedeutung der Bootsmodelle aus dem Alten Orient, in: Th. Richter / D. Prechel /J. Klinger (eds.), Kulturgeschichten. Altorientalischen Studien für Volkert Haas zum 65. Geburtstag, Saarbrücken, 2002, 267–283.
Morhange C. / La mobilité des paysages portuaires antiques du Liban, Beirut,  Saghieh-Beydoun M. (eds.) 2005 (BAAL hors-série 2).
Potts, D. T. Waterkraft of the Lower Sea, in: U. Finkbeiner / R. Dittmann / H. Hauptmann (eds.), Beiträge zur Kulturgeschichte Vorderasiens. Festschrift für Rainer Michael Boehmer, Mainz, 1995, 559–571.
Potts, D. T. Watercraft, in: D. T. Potts, Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations, London, 1997, 122–137.
Price, I. M. Transportation by water in early Babylonia, AJSL 40, 19231924, 111–116.
Röllig, W. Altorientalische Schiffsmetaphorik: V. Drehsen / D. Henke / R. Schmidt-Rost / W. Steck, Wolfgang (eds.), Der ‘ganze Mensch’. Perspektiven lebensgeschichtlicher Individualität. Festschrift für Dietrich Rössler zum siebzigsten Geburtstag (Arbeiten zur Praktischen Theologie 10), Berlin/New York 1997, 13–18.
Salonen, A. Die Wasserfahrzeuge in Babylonien, Helsinki, 1939 (Studis Orientalia 8/4).
Salonen, A. Nautica Babyloniaca, Helsinki, 1942.
Stefaniuk, L. et al. Localisation et étude paléoenvironnementale des ports antiques de Byblos, Baal Hors-Série II, 2005, 283–307.
Stieglitz, R. R. Long-distance seafaring in the Ancient Near East, BA 47, 1984, 134–142.
Stol, M. Bitumen in Ancient Mesopotamia. The textual evidence, BiOr 69, 2012, 48–60.
Wachsmann, Sh. Seagoing Ships and Seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant, 1998. [Rez. JNES 62, 2003, 30-31 (H. Genz)]
Weszeli, M. Textzeugen zu Schiffen und Schiffern im Zweiten und ersten Jahrtausend v. Chr.: Die Schifffahrt im Süden Mesopotamiens und in Mari, unpubl. Diss., Wien, 2002.
Weszeli, M. Schiff und Boot. B: In mesopotamischen Quellen des 2. und 1. Jahrtausends, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 160–171.
Weszeli, M. Schiff und Boot. D: Archäologisch, RlA 12, 2009–2011, 174– 176.

5. Related ethnographic studies  
Askenazi, T. Native river boats in Iraq, Ethnos 22, 1–2, 1957, 50–56.
Ochsenschlager, E. Ethnographic evidence for wood, boats, bitumen and reeds in southern Iraq, BSA 6, 1992, 42–78.
Ochsenschlager, E. Iraq’s Marsh Arabs in the Garden of Eden, Pennsylvania, 2004.
Ritter, H. Arabische Flußfahrzeuge am Euphrat und Tigris, Der Islam 9, 1919, 121–143.

LINKS

Centre François Viète > http://www.cfv.univ-nantes.fr/

cfv

Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest > http://www.univ-brest.fr/

46941_vignette-UBO-Hor-Noir-vecto

University of Heidelberg – Assyriology > http://www.ori.uni-heidelberg.de/assyriologie/

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École Navale > http://www.ecole-navale.fr/

ecole-navale

 

Site du groupe « Fleuves et territoires » créé dans le cadre du laboratoire d’excellence (LabEx) DynamiTe (Dynamiques territoriales et spatiales) > https://fleuves.hypotheses.org/

Workshops and Conferences

  • Construction et structure des embarcations mésopotamiennes aux IIIème et IIème millénaires avant J.-C. Certitudes, hypothèses et reconstitution expérimentale, Rencontres Internationales Instrumentum, Maëva Bou Djemaa, Arles (France),  16 juin 2017.
  • Link to the program here > http://instrumentum-europe.org/
  • Naval Architecture in Ancient Mesopotamia and Its Neighbouring Areas. From the Source to the Reconstruction, International Workshop, Ariel M. Bagg, Grégory Chambon, Brest (France), June 15th-16th 2012.

Link to the program here (PDF) program_workshop_brest_2012

Publications

A. M. Bagg, Shipbuilding in Third-Millennium Mesopotamia, in: D. Plouviez/J.-L. Kerouanton (ed.), Shipbuilding: New Approaches, New Tools, Nantes, (forthcoming).

A. M. Bagg, Watercraft at the beginning of History: The case of third-millennium Southern Mesopotamia, in: Ch. Bouchet (ed.), Projet Océanides: Histoire de la navegation, (forthcoming).

A. M. Bagg / G. Chambon, Les ports mésopotamiens: problèmes méthodologiques et considérations préliminaires pour leur étude, in: S. Laubé (ed.), (forthcoming).

G. Chambon, River navigation on the Euphrates in the second millennium B. C. E. : usages, problems and practices, in: Ch. Bouchet (ed.), Projet Océanides: Histoire de la navegation, (forthcoming).

Staff

RESPONSIBLE EDITORS

  • PD Dr. phil., Ing. Ariel M. Bagg

Seminar für Sprachen und Kulturen des Vorderen Orients / Assyriologie

Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (Germany)

Contact: ariel.bagg@ori.uni-heidelberg.de

Website: https://uni-heidelberg.academia.edu/ArielBagg    1

  • Dr. phil, Grégory Chambon

Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)

UBO-Vert haut fd Noir vecto

Contact: Gregory.chambon@univ-brest.fr

Website: https://univ-brest.academia.edu/GrégoryChambon

WEBSITE DESIGNER

  • Maëva Boudjema

Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)

Contact: maeva.boudjema@gmail.com

 

EXTERNAL COLLABORATORS

  • François Grinnaertecole-navale

École Navale, Brest, France

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presentation

1. INTRODUCTION

The earliest attestations of water transportation in the Ancient Near East (today’s Middle-East) are seal impressions and ship models dating from the late 4th millennium and even earlier. In the archaic texts from Uruk (Warka in southern Iraq), the oldest texts of mankind history (dating as well from the end of the 4th millennium), an ideogram for “ship” is already attested, and in the inscriptions of the kings of the first dynasty of Lagash (modern al-Hibā also in southern Iraq) ships are mentioned for the first time in connection with maritime trade (approx. 2500–2350 BCE). A variety of water crafts are attested on cylinder seals and wall-reliefs, as models and in the written cuneiform sources, from rafts on inflated skins, basket-like water crafts covered with leather, and boats made of reed up to different types of freighters which were used for river or maritime transport, and warships.

The boat journey of the god Ea (cylinder seal impression, ca. 2300–2150 BCE) Source: W. H. Ward, The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, Washington, 1910, 40, fig. 102.

The boat journey of the god Ea (cylinder seal impression, ca. 2300–2150 BCE)
Source: W. H. Ward, The Seal Cylinders of Western Asia, Washington, 1910, 40, fig. 102.

Crescent-shaped boat with two boatmen equipped with round paddles (seal impression, Early Dynastic, from Ur). Source: L. Legrain, Archaic Seal-Impressions, New York, 1936 (Ur Excavations III), plate 28, 492.

Crescent-shaped boat with two boatmen equipped with round paddles (seal impression, Early Dynastic, from Ur).
Source: L. Legrain, Archaic Seal-Impressions, New York, 1936 (Ur Excavations III), plate 28, 492.

 Boat with high horn-like stern and prow decorated with leaf ornaments. The boatman is armed with a long pole. (seal impression, Early Dynastic, from Ur). Source: L. Legrain, Archaic Seal-Impressions, New York, 1936 (Ur Excavations III), plate 16, 300.

Boat with high horn-like stern and prow decorated with leaf ornaments. The boatman is armed with a long pole. (seal impression, Early Dynastic, from Ur).
Source: L. Legrain, Archaic Seal-Impressions, New York, 1936 (Ur Excavations III), plate 16, 300.

Round basket-like boat with hide covering (wall relief, Nineveh) Source: A. H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 12

Round basket-like boat with hide covering (wall relief, Nineveh)
Source: A. H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 12

Assyrian raft made of wood and inflated skins (wall relief, Nineveh, South-West Palace, Hall VI, slab 54, reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 BCE). Source: A. H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 13.

Assyrian raft made of wood and inflated skins (wall relief, Nineveh, South-West Palace, Hall VI, slab 54, reign of Sennacherib, 704–681 BCE).
Source: A. H. Layard, A Second Series of the Monuments of Nineveh, London, 1853, plate 13.

Ancient Near Eastern written sources are attested from the last quarter of the third to the end of the first millennium BCE, with some late tablets dating from the second century CE. Different languages – with their corresponding stages and dialects – were written in a variety of writing systems: cuneiform script (Akkadian, Sumerian, Ugaritic), linear script (Aramaic, Hebrew, Phoenician) and hieroglyphic script (Luwian). Furthermore Ancient Near Eastern sources comprise a great number of genres: royal inscriptions, administrative texts, legal documents, letters, lexical texts, catalogues, as well as historiographical, literary and religious texts among others. The already huge corpus of cuneiform sources is open, because only part of it was already published (some thousands only as autographs) and because new excavations enlarge the corpus permanently. These written sources (principally the cuneiform ones) together with the archaeological material are a precious source for the study of Ancient Near Eastern ships and shipbuilding, waiting for comprehensive lexical and technical-historical studies.

 

2. THE ELEPPU PROJECT

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Convinced of the importance of shipbuilding and navigation for the Ancient Near East as well of its relevant and pioneering role in nautical history we started 2010 an ambitious project in the frame of the research group «Patrimoine, Histoire des Sciences et des Techniques» (PaHST) at the Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO) in Brest. The enterprise was named “The Eleppu Project: Ships and Shipbuilding in the Ancient Near East”. eleppu is the Akkadian word for ship; the Sumerian word is ma written ĝešma2 with the preceding determinative for wooden objects and the cuneiform sign ma2). Since 2012 the Eleppu Project is anchored at the both renowned Centre François Viète d’épistémologie et d’histoire des sciences et des techniques (Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest/Université de Nantes, France) and Assyriological Institute at the University of Heidelberg (Germany).

After a first preliminary overview of selected written and archaeological sources and of the secondary literature, it was clear first, that an important gap in nautical history merited to be closed; second, that the variety and extent of the Ancient Near Eastern sources allowed such a study and promised interesting results; third, that reconstructions of ships and boats were possible; fourth, that the study of Mesopotamian harbours was at its beginnings, and finally, that the great amount of sources comprising different languages – not uniform distributed along all the involved historical periods as well as the iconographical material, required a long-term study, chronologically organized according to the different historical periods. Considering the interests and fields of research of the two directors, Ariel M. Bagg was entrusted with the third (and later with the first) millennium BCE and Grégory Chambon with the second millennium BCE, working both in contact with professional model makers, graphic designers and specially in close collaboration with naval architects, as the Eleppu Project and its institutional frame provide a fruitful environment for productive interdisciplinary research.

3. GOALS

The aim of Eleppu is a comprehensive study of watercraft and navigation in the Ancient Near East from the late 4th to the end of the 1st millennium BCE on the base of the original cuneiform sources and the archaeological evidence combining the perspectives of Assyriology and History of Technology. According to the available sources, the research will be focused in a first phase on ancient Mesopotamia (nowadays mainly Iraq and Syria).

In spite of the great variety and number of sources containing technological information, the achievements of Ancient Near Eastern cultures have been almost ignored by historians of technology and knowledge. In the case of ships and shipping, a relatively well studied subject in relation to (some) preindustrial cultures, is such omission unreckoned. However, there is an explanation for this situation: because of the particular stand of publication of the cuneiform sources, non-specialists can neither get an overview nor access easily to them. Even when selected texts are used, outdated translations frequently induce misinterpretations. Taken into account that the sources attest to the high technological level of Ancient Near Eastern shipbuilders and mariners, a study of the technical terminology according to the original sources is a first indispensable step.

Furthermore, the research project aims to make available relevant sources to scholars from other disciplines, allowing comparative studies. The research focuses not only on construction techniques and ships typologies, but also on how the required technological knowledge was acquired, preserved and transmitted as well as on the social and historical conditions which make shipping possible.

The knowledge gained through the analysis of the written and archaeological sources should provide enough information for digital reconstructions, 3D-animations and modelling. These powerful tools allow checking the outcome from written and archaeological sources. In the case of Ancient Near Eastern ships – as well as in almost all technical subjects – the available information is not complete. Therefore, the inexistent data must be substituted by hypothetical assumptions. Computer-aided design and modelling allow to test the plausibility of the proposed hypothesis and to correct them in order to improve the results. Furthermore, 3D-animations and scale models permit to see and test the objects in action, namely how they move, how can they be operated, how they interact with the natural environment and with people.

The Ancient Near Eastern written and archaeological sources represent a valuable, not yet exhausted material for the study of an important period in the history of the shipbuilding and harbour construction which deserves and earns a comprehensive treatment.